To feed chickens at home, certain rules must be followed, which novice farmers should be aware of. All the nutrients needed by the chicks should be in the food, the products should be age-appropriate. It is important to adhere to the regimen, give only fresh food and keep young animals clean.
The rules for feeding chickens must be observed.
General rules for feeding chickens
Feed the chicks at home begin from the first life. So that they do not hurt, they gain weight well, adhere to some general rules:
- The dishes are cleaned, the remains of the feed are removed, the water is changed several times a day.
- Tanks are regularly washed, disinfected with soapy water, 5 percent formalin or alcohol.
- The design of dishes for food and drink is thought out so that the chicks can not get into it.
- Feeders fill only a third.
- In the early hours, feed the chicks from a leaf or saucer.
- All birds should receive the same amount of food. Less active and weak chicks need to plant and feed.
- Once a week, young animals are soldered with a potassium permanganate solution to prevent intestinal diseases.
- All feed must be fresh.
The feeding regimen for chicks of different ages is their own:
- the first week - 8 times a day,
- 10-30 days - 6 times a day,
- 30-50 days - 4-5 times a day,
- after 2 months - 3-4 times a day.
For the normal growth and health of only a born chick, proper care is important. From the first days, you should adhere to the thermal regime. In the early days, newborns are warmed under a lamp at 28-30 ° C, then the temperature is daily reduced by 1-2 ° C. 24-hour lighting promotes good appetite. At the end of the first week, the chicks are released from the box into the room, and from the second - into the street. Activity also has a positive effect on growth. The litter is regularly changed, and the box is cleaned. Sick individuals are promptly detected and isolated so that the infection does not spread to the entire population.
Nutrients in the diet
A complete diet contains essential nutrients for birds. This should be considered when preparing food with your own hands.
- Proteins These substances are important for the growth of chicks. In food should be 15-20% of proteins, their amount depends on age. Proteins are found in egg whites and yolks, peas, soy, lentils, oatmeal, corn, wheat, meat and fish broths are richer in them.
- Carbohydrates. These substances are the energy component necessary for the growth and increase activity of young animals. Carbohydrates are simple (glucose, sucrose, fructose) and complex (starch, fiber). Complex are found in cereals, vegetables, and coarse grains. They provide normal digestion and intestinal motility, in the diet should be 7-10% of complex carbohydrates.
- Fats. Regular chicken feed contains a sufficient amount of fat; they do not need to be added additionally, so as not to cause stomach problems. The only exception is fish oil containing vitamin D.
In addition to the main components, food should include vitamins and minerals. The most important for chicks are vitamins A, B, E and D. Vitamin A is found in fresh herbs, vegetables (carrots, pumpkins, squash). Vitamin B is rich in cereals, brewer's yeast. Tocopherol or vitamin E is found in legumes and sprouted wheat. Vitamin D is produced under the influence of sunlight, it helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus. If the chicks grow indoors, they are given fish oil or drugs with this vitamin.
It is important for future laying hens to give enough calcium-rich foods. This mineral affects bone growth and egg shell hardness. There is a lot of calcium in cottage cheese and dairy products. From the second week, bone and fish meal are gradually introduced into the diet of small chicks.
Feeding chicks in the first week
The chick must be fed for 2 hours from the moment of birth. This contributes to the development of feed instinct, improves weight gain and the health of young animals. They do not know how to eat on their own. If the chick brought the chicks out, she herself will take care of the training of the newborns. Hatching birds will have to be taught on their own - you should knock on paper with food, put a piece in the beak.
On the first day, it is recommended to feed the chickens at home with a boiled egg or corn flour. Some poultry farmers say that the percentage of fat is too high for one-day-old chicks in chicken egg yolks, but this theory is not supported. At the age of 2 days, corn flour, semolina is mixed into the egg, you can feed the chicks with yogurt or kefir.
Three-day-old chicks begin to feed with cottage cheese, millet, millet, chopped buckwheat, wheat, oats, corn, rice in equal parts. At this age, they definitely give chopped greens - nettles, meadow grass, plantain, dandelion. To prevent infections and improve digestion, a little green onions are added to the mash. The menu includes vegetables - boiled carrots, zucchini. From 4-5 days they give minerals, oilcake and meal.
The norm of feed for chickens in the early days (in grams per individual):
- a mixture of egg whites and yolks - 2 g,
- yogurt - 5-8 g,
- low-fat cottage cheese - 1-1.5 g,
- grain - 5-9 g
- cake and meal - 0.2 g from 4 days,
- greens, carrots - 1-3 g,
- minerals - 0.4 g.
Already at the end of the first week, the percentage of grain in food should increase, and on the tenth day these components should make up most of the menu. Some farmers advise giving at this time a full-fledged chicken feed - “Sun” or “Purina” for intensive growth. Mixtures contain all the necessary cereals, vitamins and minerals. Feed and drink newborn chicks every 2 hours, even at night. Then 8 times a day. They are provided with round-the-clock access to water; potassium permanganate is added to it at the beginning and at the end of the week.
The chick must be fed for 2 hours from the moment of birth
Feeding chickens at 2-3 weeks
These days, the egg is removed from the menu. Ten-day-old chicks continue to feed with cottage cheese, yogurt. They pay more attention to mixers with vegetables and grain, introduce boiled potatoes, fish and meat and bone meal, pre-start ready-mixed feed for a quick increase in weight.
Cereals continue to grind, whole grain chicks begin to eat only a month. The main types of cereals are barley, corn, wheat, oats, millet, millet. They are steamed or given raw, mixed with boiled potatoes and other vegetables. Shredded greens - nettles, dill, grass, lettuce, carrot tops, are also added to the mixers. Each farmer can make a recipe for such feed mixtures himself, adhering to the basic recommendations on feeding norms. Good homemade bio-feed contains the following:
- crushed corn grain - 50%,
- oilcake - 18%
- crushed wheat grains - 12%,
- meat and bone meal - 7%,
- feed yeast - 5%,
- chopped grass - 3%,
- return (powder) - 3%,
- feed fats - 1%.
Scheme and table feeding two-week-old chicks (in grams per individual per day):
- yogurt - 15 g
- cottage cheese - 2 g,
- corn, oats, barley, millet in equal parts - 13 g,
- fish or meat and bone meal - 1 g,
- cake and meal - 0.5 g,
- greens - 7 g,
- boiled potatoes - 4 g,
- mineral additives - 0.7 g.
At the end of the first week, small chicks begin to be released into the street. The diet of chickens will replenish with fresh grass, insects, worms. Birds at this age already know how to look for food, which should be taken into account when calculating the daily amount of food.
The diet of monthly males and hens is substantially supplemented by food that they themselves find on the street. The chicks begin to feed on green grass, flies, bugs and worms. So they replenish the supply of proteins and vitamins. But this does not mean that it is necessary to reduce the amount of food. Young growth becomes more active and at the same time continues to grow intensively.
The basis of the menu is a grain feed mixture with wheat, corn, barley and oats. At the poultry farms at this time they give starter feed. From 6 weeks old, males and hens begin to be fed whole grains.
Feed the monthly chickens continue with vegetables: carrots, pumpkin, zucchini, beets, cucumbers. Wet mixers are made on the basis of boiled potatoes. The menu also includes food waste - vegetable peeling, the remains of cereals, soups, meat dishes. They should be fresh, not sour or moldy. Chicks continue to be fed with cottage cheese and sour milk to replenish the supply of calcium and proteins.
Be sure to feed the chickens at home with mineral supplements. They are given meat and bone meal and fish meal. Chalk is added to the grain and wet mixers. Next to the feeders and drinking bowls put containers filled with crushed shells, pebbles. For the chicks to grow, they need vitamins for normal metabolism and the absorption of calcium. Therefore, they add fish oil to food, they give special complexes for chickens.
Proper feeding of monthly chickens and dietary norms (based on one chicken):
- sour milk - 20-35 g,
- cottage cheese - 3-4 g,
- grain mixture - 22-32 g,
- fish and meat and bone meal - 1.4-2.8 g,
- cake and meal - 0.6-1.2 g,
- greens, carrots, zucchini - 10-13 g,
- potatoes and other root crops - 10-20 g,
- mineral feed - 1-2 g.
The table shows the complete norms for young animals aged 1-1.5 months, they are also suitable for two-month-old hens and roosters. At this age, 4-5 day feedings should be given. Proper care is also important, regular walking of birds is required.
Feeding three-month-old chickens
Fattening three-month-old chickens is not a problem. Broilers at this age are already sent for slaughter. The basis of nutrition at 3 months is compound feed, more often they choose “Finish" or a mixture for adult hens. It is easy to make compound feed with your own hands. Here is a simple recipe:
- corn grain - 45-50%,
- wheat - 14-19%,
- meal - 19%,
- yeast - 5%,
- fish and meat and bone meal - 3% and 2%, respectively,
- green grass - 3%,
- chalk and shells - 1-1.5%.
Compound feed and grain mixtures are supplemented with wet potato-based mixers. In the summer, the bird is fed with fresh vegetables that grow in the garden, tops. In winter they give raw carrots and beets. From the age of three months, more legumes are added to their diet - peas, red beans, soy, lentils. It is recommended to give leftovers from the table - bread crusts, meat and fish leftovers, cereals, vegetable dishes.
The basis for feeding chickens at 3 months is feed
Feeding chickens meat-egg breeds
The food of egg chickens in the first week is standard. Then add more greens and mineral supplements to the menu. The amount of protein for newborns is 20% of the total number of all nutrients, and from 2-3 months of life - 16%. Future laying hens should eat high fiber vegetables and cereals to prevent obesity. Excessive chicken is poorly carried.
An important component of feeding laying hens at home is calcium. This mineral affects the strength of the eggshell and must accumulate in the chicken body in sufficient quantities. Therefore, the chicks are given cottage cheese, yogurt, kefir. Already at the end of the first week, mineral supplements and bone meal are included in the diet. Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of calcium. To supplement it, fish oil is included in the diet for chickens from five days on.
Feeding Chicken Meat Breeds
The main goal of fattening meat breeds and broilers is to increase body weight for a short time. Chicken and rooster already at two months of age have a mass of 1.5-2 kg. Fattening is intense and extensive. In the first case, the bird is kept indoors or in cages without walking. In the second, the chicks go outside, but their activity is limited.
For the first five days, broiler feeding is no different from future laying hens. The only rule - the menu includes more proteins - up to 21-22% of the total amount of nutrients. Chickens are given a boiled egg, reverse, yogurt, cottage cheese. Intensive protein nutrition provides up to a month.
Already from 2-3 days, meat breeds should eat mixed feed (20 g per individual per day). First it is “Prestart”, from 2 weeks - “Start”, and from one month - “Finish” for broilers and guinea fowls. Five-day-old chicks are necessarily fed with vitamins A, D, E and B. It is also advised to feed the chickens at home with wet mashcloths, which consist of carrots, herbs, steamed cereals. In two weeks, potatoes, meat and fish, bone meal are introduced.
From the second month, the amount of protein is reduced to 14-16%. At this time, the menu should consist of carbohydrates, fiber is less than laying hens. With extensive fattening, chicks are allowed to walk into the yard. Up to three months, broilers reach their set weight and begin to recover more slowly. Because at this age they are sent for slaughter. For 1 kg of growth, meat chicken during a period of rapid growth eats 2.5-3 kg of feed, after 3-4 months, food consumption increases, keeping the livestock becomes unprofitable.
How often to feed
The first time chickens are fed the same day they were born. Then, up to 7 days of age, the meat breeding chicks are given 6-8 times a day, from the 2nd week of life - 6 times, from the 3rd - 4 times a day, by the age of one month, feeding the chickens is carried out three times a day.
Egg chicks are fed 5-6 times a day for up to 1.5 weeks, and by the month they are gradually transferred to 3 single meals.
Feeding of egg chickens from the first days of life begins immediately after they dry. A cool boiled egg should be the first food for newborn chickens. It is cut as small as possible so that the chicks can swallow small crumbs and roll in semolina to prevent pieces from sticking to the legs and down. In the brooder, where they are, put a drinker with clean, boiled and cooled water. Freshly hatched chickens under the brood are also fed a boiled egg.
On the 2nd day, the chicks are already given a mash of eggs and home-made low-fat fresh cottage cheese (the ratio of ingredients is 1 to 1). The mixture for feeding daily chickens should be fresh, it is fed every 3 hours.
From the 3rd day, the chickens are fed a more diverse mixture of cottage cheese, boiled egg, crumbly porridge from corn, oat or wheat cut (the proportion of cereals should be 65%). To them add finely chopped greens and grated boiled red-fruited carrots grated on a fine grater. You can give germinated grain or grass flour at the rate of 2-3 g per chicken per day. Over 5 g of such flour cannot be fed because of the high fiber content in it. Separately, a little skim milk or yogurt is poured into the container, it is better not to add them to the mixers.
The mixture is scattered on a plate and placed under a lamp. Chickens are planted next to them and a drinking bowl with warm water is placed near them (you can use a 0.5 liter jar placed on a saucer). Twice a week, several crystals of potassium permanganate are added to the water to make it slightly pink. Keep it in drinkers for no more than 0.5 hours, and then replace it with clean water. This protects chickens from stomach diseases.
It is also necessary to take care of vitamins for chickens in the first days of life: they are supplemented with oil solutions of vitamins A, E and D. They can prepare vitamin top dressing on their own: pour 10 ml of each substance into a 0.5 liter jar, then pour ordinary oil to the top . Add a solution to the feed for 1 tsp. per 1 kg of food 2 times a week. Also, small chicks are given fish oil to prevent the development of rickets.
An approximate diet for chickens in the early days of life:
- corn grits - 50%,
- wheat groats - 14%,
- oat or barley groats - 10%,
- soybean meal - 14%,
- dry return - 1%.
During this period, it is not recommended to give chickens foods rich in fiber, you can not give spoiled, rotten, poor quality.
From the 5th-6th day, mineral supplements, crushed eggshells, shells, and wood ash should already be added to their diet.
You can feed the chicks with special industrial compound feed for chickens from the first days of life. It is composed of products that are easily absorbed by the body of small chickens and fully satisfies all their needs.
Older than a week
Weekly chickens are fed with the same food, that is, wet egg batters, finely ground grains, herbs, boiled root crops (necessarily potatoes and carrots). The consistency of the mixture should be friable, not liquid, but not dry.
From 1.5 weeks of life, a little sunflower or soybean meal (3-4% of the total food), chalk or shell, bone meal (5-7% of the amount of feed or 2-3 g per 1 chick). Feed particles should not be more than 1-2 mm. Very fine gravel or sand washed in water is placed in a separate container.
After 10 days, eggs are removed from the diet, but other components, for example, root crops (boiled potatoes, etc.), are introduced. Salt, rice, rye, wheat bran (up to 10%), grass meal (6-10%) are introduced into the menu of two-week-old chickens. From 3 weeks old, little birds begin to accustom to whole grains.
It is desirable to feed young chickens according to the daily regimen (distribution of food every 3 hours starting at 6 a.m.):
- powdered grain is dry,
- wet mash
- crushed grain
- wet mash
- dry crushed grain.
Each day, each individual should consume about 15-30 g of food: how much depends on the breed, the mass of the chicks, and the intensity of their development. In general, the amount of feed each time should be such that young hens eat it in 30 or 40 minutes. Residues must be removed from the feeders in order not to spoil, and the feeders themselves should be washed and dried. Если цыплята не поедают заданный им корм часто, то его норму нужно сократить. Если же, наоборот, пища оказывается съеденной быстро, то желательно ее объем увеличить.
When feeding chickens up to a month and after, you need to adhere to sanitary standards: wash drinkers and feeders every day, often change the litter, do not allow the room to be damp.
At this age, young growth is already strong enough, it can spend time walking, where it independently finds greens, seeds of various plants, worms and beetles. If the birds are in a closed enclosure and cannot pinch grass, then they need to give it along with grain and vegetables. On the whole, the proportion of green grass in the diet of the monthly young should be about 1 3 parts, not less.
Grain can be given both ground and whole: birds are already able to peck it. It can be anything: wheat, barley, corn, oat, etc. At this age, you can also feed legumes: peas, chickpeas, small beans, etc.
In addition to grain products, you can feed root chickens, fresh or boiled, vegetables from the garden and their tops, kitchen waste of both plant and animal origin, bran, meal and cake, mixed feed to monthly chickens.
Of the mineral additives - bone and fish meal, chalk or lime, shell rock, salt. In addition to food, young animals should always have clean water in the drinking bowls and pebbles that the bird needs for normal digestion.
Features of feeding meat breeds
After hatching, the chickens of meat breeds can be fed the same as the eggs, that is, give them a steeply cooked and finely chopped egg. On the first day, nothing more needs to be given. On the 2nd day, it is permissible to feed a mash of low-fat cottage cheese and boiled egg, from the next day you can already give the chickens grass: finely chopped nettles, onion feathers, dandelions, parsley, dill, legumes and crops. Grain (millet, oats, wheat, corn, barley) is fed in crushed and boiled form. The share of grain cereals in the diet of meat breeding chickens should be at least 50%. Knead mixers need to be in the water, but, like egg, chicken meat is useful to drink skim milk and whey.
As an option, you can also sprout whole grains (barley is best suited for these purposes) and feed it in this form.
From this age, chickens can be fed boiled carrots and potatoes. Vitamins for babies of meat breeds are also needed: you can use a home-made oil solution of liquid vitamins A, E and D. The rate of introduction of vitamin top dressing for meat chicken should be increased by about 1.5 times.
Eggs can be fed only up to 10 days. Mineral supplements should be introduced from 1.5-2 weeks of age: give the chicks chalk, shell, crushed shells, salt, premixes, yeast. Then you can start feeding them with meal and cake, boiled vegetables and root crops, bread crumbs, as well as food of animal origin: meat or fish waste, leftovers from the table. Mashkins can be kneaded on broth or whey.
Chicken meat breeds differ from egg breeds in that they require more high-grade proteins and vitamin substances, so their diet should be made taking into account this feature. Therefore, you need to give more protein feed, for example legumes (grain and green mass), meat and bone meal and fish meal, fresh kitchen waste. It should also be borne in mind that they eat more, so they need to be fed more often, especially in the first days of life.
Feeding chickens belonging to meat breeds can be greatly simplified if, instead of self-cooked food, feed them commercially produced feed. You need to give it plenty: in the feeders, the dry mixture should be constantly. Naturally, at the same time, you need to make sure that the youngsters always have fresh water available, it needs to be changed every day. In addition to food and water, birds need to put a bowl of fine gravel or sand.
What can be food for birds
Feeding chickens at home is not particularly difficult even for beginner poultry farmers. The thing is that small birds are not picky, because food for them can be found in any pet store or made independently. It is important that the preparation of the diet takes into account the age and purpose of growing the chicken. Often, each bird’s menu includes starter feed for day-old chickens and growth feed for individuals whose age has already reached 2 months. Feeding layers from 17 days is completely the use of developing feed. In addition to PCs, young animals need sour-milk and grain products.
So, what to feed the monthly chickens?
- Feeding grain is an important component of the nutrition of any breed of chickens. Cereals are included in the diet in the amount of up to 60%. It is important to clean the grains from the films, crush as finely as possible. Wet mash can be made on yogurt or yogurt in order to increase the nutritional value of chickens.
- Food for laying hens should be combined with the use of dairy products (whey, skim milk, cottage cheese, yogurt), which can provide the body with calcium and the necessary amount of vitamins, minerals. Poultry can only eat fresh and non-sour foods in order to maintain a normal intestines. Water can be replaced with a small amount of serum.
- Feeding small feathery greens is necessary every season, therefore, even in the absence of fresh greens, it must be replaced with germinated cereals, grass flour, nettles, dried hay. Also, for chickens, it will not be superfluous to prepare a hanging feeder with greens. Feeding monthly chickens is an important point, you need to monitor it.
- The diet of chickens should be enriched with vitamins in the first days. Complexes from vitamins of groups E, A, D will be needed in order to prevent rickets, lameness, and weakening of blood vessels. The main thing is to prevent overdose, because this or that vitamin in a larger than necessary amount can lead to poisoning. For example, D2 is less active (28-30 times) than D3. The diet for chickens should be built with high quality.
A born chicken should be fed often due to physiological characteristics. The first time after the birth of newborns is fed 8-9 times a day, and you can start eating only after 12 hours after birth. Of course, in the first hours of the baby's life, the question arises whether it is necessary to feed the chicken with a particular product. Small chick feed should include:
- chopped cereals: millet, corn, oats,
- hard boiled egg
- cottage cheese,
- onions and dill.
In addition to the fact that you need to feed daily chickens often, for several days you will have to devote time to this at night. After 7 days, you can start feeding birds with shells, fine river sand, flour, eggshells and charcoal. The feed rate for young chickens is calculated individually, for this there is a special table.
The subtleties of growing and feeding chickens
How to feed and care for your chickens or how to properly feed laying hens are important issues. Water and feed the chickens regularly and correctly. There should be free access to feeders and drinking bowls so that the baby can satisfy his needs at any time. Should you feed chickens heavily? To care for chickens is not particularly difficult, you must follow these recommendations:
- the feeder should be filled by only a third, so that the feed consumption was not too large,
- feeding from the first day should be carried out tightly and regularly: those chickens that are rarely suitable for feeding can eat from the owner’s hands, for which a pipette is suitable, in which you can put the crushed egg yolk and milk,
- chicken at any age should be provided with water, which should be changed regularly,
- in order to avoid diseases, chickens are fed a solution of potassium permanganate.
There is a video on how to feed chickens, designed to help all poultry farmers.
For proper care, one feeding is not enough. From the first day it is necessary to take care of the feeders, constantly cleaning and disinfecting them with a soap solution or formalin solution. In order to prevent rot, you need to carefully get rid of old feed.
How to feed broilers
First feeding your chicks - what will it be? Feed broiler chickens in a special way, so that already at the age of 2-3 months they reach a weight of more than 1.5 kg. Fattening meat breeds at home is carried out in intensive and extensive ways. The first case involves year-round cultivation without walking, and the second - three-month or four-month with periodic walking. To make small birds in the early days grow as quickly as possible, it is better to compose their diet from developed compound feeds with a large number of proteins and vitamins in the composition.
Feeding small newborn chickens is a whole art. Chicken feed should be provided in large quantities and include gravel.
In order for broilers to gain weight more efficiently, a special scheme was developed, following which you can grow a large chicken in a small amount of time. normal development of birds is possible only with proper lighting and temperature in the chicken coop. At a younger age, the temperature should not go beyond 28-30 ° C, in a month or more it is recommended to lower it to 20 ° C. In this case, you must adhere to dim lighting.
It will be elementary to prepare food for chickens in comfortable home conditions. So, how to feed broiler chickens, depending on their age?
- One-day chickens are fed with wheat groats, chopped corn, mashed boiled egg, millet. If you feed them with oats, boiled rice and buckwheat, barley, wheat, it is important to monitor the elimination of the film and the maximum grinding of grain. You can give a little cottage cheese.
- Three-day birds are gradually transferred to shredded greens. You can start adding dandelion, nettle. With a lack of greens, the mouth of the young is inhibited.
- In addition to everything, five-day-old males and chickens are fed with shabby red carrots (Norma per individual - 4-5 g per day) and grass meal (about 2-5 g). A larger amount of product will lead to an overdose due to the high fiber content.
- Ten-day-old chickens indulge in a larger proportion of cereals, porridge. You should also make sure that the chickens are provided with fish, shabby crayons, shells. Foods are full of calcium and are essential for bone growth and strengthening. The consumption rate should not exceed 10 g. Growing chicken also needs vegetable protein feed: meal and cake.
- Twenty-day-old, monthly guinea fowls are fed with boiled and chopped potatoes, which should replace 5 part of grain crops.
We must not forget that newborn chickens (a month or two lives) must also be watered. You should give starter feed, and then decide on a further scheme. In this you can be helped by a table or a feeding scheme.
How much and how often to give feathered food will be reflected in the feeding scheme, according to which:
- in the first week of life you need to feed the chickens 8 times,
- in the second - up to 6,
- in the third - 4,
- per month or more - twice.
To accelerate growth, you must try to feed the chickens with chopped cabbage, pumpkin or zucchini. Vegetables are full of vitamins, sulfur and trace elements. Following the advice of experienced farmers, you can saturate the diet with fine gravel (no more than 200 g per hundred heads once every 7 days).
Purchased bio-feed for your chickens can be a great start for their growth and weight gain in the first days of life. Basically, the recipe for the first starter feed is different in quality and the correct ratio of the necessary components in grams. It is better to choose high-grade ready-made feeds with wheat, corn, fishmeal, meal, salt, limestone and other mineral components.
Often farmers are not satisfied with the price of the finished product, because they switch to self-production. You can buy a feed mixture for any of the chicken breeds at poultry farms or in veterinary stores. The best choice for broilers for quick weight gain is Purin or Rich food (to speed up metabolic processes), which can be given a few days after birth.
Egg chickens: feeding characteristics
Eating egg breeds at home in the early days is not difficult. The first meal should occur immediately after the chicken has dried and the movement begins. The growth in the future depends on how early you can begin to feed young growth. In general, the diet of chickens of egg breeds is not very different from feeding meat of young animals. As in the case of broilers, it is important to observe the regimen from the first day of life and to timely fill the layers of the layers with food.
- Daytime birds need to be fed with boiled and chopped eggs treated with semolina to avoid sticking to the bird's limbs.
- On the second day, the chicks can gradually switch to eating fresh herbs (the same products are suitable as for meat breeds). The use of yeast will not be superfluous, after which the birds are transferred to solid vegetables.
- From the first to the fifth day, the chicks must be fed with a mixture of wheat or corn, cottage cheese and boiled millet.
- Feeding of laying hens from the 5th day at home can be represented by dry and wet hand-made batters and chopped feeds saturated with proteins. The table, according to which many poultry farmers follow, indicates that the diet should have the following composition: up to 10 g of dairy products, 2-3 g of boiled eggs, 3 g of greens, carrots, tops, 0.5 g of ground shells.
- At the age of 10 days, young chicken should be fed with stale milk, fishmeal, oilcake, carrots, mineral feed, crops, boiled rice with milk, low-fat cottage cheese. Flour can be replaced by meat waste, frogs, worms.
- For 20-29 days of life, you need to start giving young growth more potatoes - up to 20 g. You need to switch to fermented milk products and refuse fresh milk for better absorption. Cereals are gradually enlarging: the fraction for feeding the monthly birds should be 1 cm. The use of fishmeal is increased by a couple of times in order to prevent rickets and harden the shell.
- At the age of 30 days, laying hens are transferred to table salt (its content has no right to exceed 0.1 g). Chicks feed on chopped cabbage, beets, pumpkin, green fodder. On the 30th day of life, chickens must already be accustomed to greens, the use of which reduces the intake of purchased vitamin complexes. Two-month or three-month-old chickens need to be smoothly accustomed to the use of fish oil mixed with grain, as well as to wood ash, the amount of which should be 4 g per day.
It's all about feeding chickens that a self-respecting poultry breeder needs to know. The composition of the diet largely depends on the age of the bird. As in the case of broilers, layers need to be fed with sand. Quota should not consume fresh milk, so as not to provoke digestive upsets. Starting from 4 days, standard proper nutrition is saturated with mineral additives, lime feed. For 10 days, to feed the birds, you need to give them food every couple of hours, after which feeding is reduced to 5 times a day. After 60 days of age, birds are transferred to 4 meals a day. It is impossible to give large grains to chickens, whose age has not yet reached a month, because the body will not be able to digest such heavy food.
Keeping the chicks locked up is also prohibited: they need to be provided with a paddock and a sun that can nourish them with vitamins and energy.
Proper nutrition is the key to health and good mass gain. If chickens are not provided with a balanced diet and vitamins from birth, there is a risk of death or the occurrence of frogs and diseases. It is important to remember that meat and egg breeds differ in feeding requirements, therefore they must be taken into account without fail. Now you know how to feed your birds, and you will do it with porridge or specialized food, this is a purely personal matter.
Healthy Diet and Chicken Feed Consumption
The ration is called the daily set of feeds (based on 1 head in grams).
The daily diet should include: grain, protein foods + vitamins and minerals.
Chicks should always have access to water, and care must be taken to ensure that they are not wet, otherwise the chicks may become sick. The drinker and feeder should be located in a warm, bright place.
Weekly chickens need to be given boiled water of 30 degrees, then gradually lower the temperature, by the age of three weeks the temperature of the drink should be 18 degrees.
Vitamins and amino acids can be mixed into water for chickens, and antibiotics for diseases.
Feed consumption rates are clearly shown in Table 1.
|Feed consumption in grams for:|
|Per day||In Week||Total||Per day||In Week||Total|
As known, the first food for the chicken is provided in the egg. Before hatching, he eats the remains of the yolk, so immediately feeding newborn babies is not particularly necessary. Let them dry, rest for a while.
The first feeding should occur no later than 12-16 hours after hatching. According to statistics, the survival and viability of chicks fed in the first 16 hours is much higher than chickens that were not fed at all in the first day.
Оптимальный вариант питания цыплят в первую неделю жизни — через каждые 2 часа, включая ночное время. К концу недели следует уменьшить кормления до 7-8 раз в день. Следите, чтобы кормушка всегда была наполнена, ополаскивайте её кипячёной водой.
По поводу первого корма сейчас очень много разногласий и споров. Дело в том, что много лет оптимальным кормом после вылупления считался измельчённый варёный желток. Но недавние открытия признали его слишком жирным для нежных желудков птенцов. In view of this, it is now customary to consider the best first food is corn grits.
After the kids, you can give a hard-boiled yolk mixed with semolina (so as not to stick together), starter compound feed, boiled and finely chopped nettle greens. On the third and fourth days, you can diversify the diet by adding wheat and barley groats, grated boiled potatoes and carrots, chopped green onions.
Chickens need to be given kefir or to give finely chopped cottage cheese, because calcium is necessary for the chicks. Some poultry farmers mix linex or bifidumbacterin into the water to maintain the intestinal microflora.
In the first week, be sure to check the goiter in chickens before bedtime. Those with whom they are empty feed separately.
Weekly chicks are fed a mash of corn, barley, wheat and oat groats (or compound feed for chickens) + grass, vegetables (potatoes and carrots) and dairy products. The number of feedings per day - at least 7 times. At a weekly age, one should water the chicks with a weak solution of potassium permanganate 3 times a week to prevent infections.
Already grown chicks, you can add soaked bread to the diet (mix in cereals), boiled fish. Do not forget to monitor the freshness of food in the feeders, always sprinkle as much food on the chicks as they eat at a time so that they do not trample it. Compound feeds can already be replaced slowly with bran. The number of feeds of two-week-old chickens is 6-7 times a day.
Monthly chickens can already be allowed outside, so fresh herbs are considered an integral part of their diet. At this age, young animals can be gradually given coarse grains, and by one and a half months - whole.
We also continue to feed birds with vegetables and vegetable waste, dairy products and cereals. You can give lean meat waste (boiled). Chicks should have a separate gravel, sand or crushed egg shell feeder.
You can not give the chicks of earthworms, although they really love them. From such food, chickens can become infected with helminths and even die.
From three months old, chickens are already being converted to adult chickens, but young stocks should be fed denser and more often.
Grain continues to be the main feed, but birds will not refuse scraps from the table. It can be: bread crusts, the remains of meat, fish, etc.
If greens do not grow in the paddock, you need to give them fresh grass every day. Most often, birds make hanging feeders so that the greens are not trampled.
What is egg ovoscopy and how is it done? We talked about this in detail here.
You can find the recipe for chicken stirrers in our article.
The first five days of life of future laying hens are fed in the same way as all chickens. From the fifth day you can feed with dry food. Before feeding oat or barley flour, it is necessary to sift the grain films, since the chickens do not digest them well. Be sure to contain feed containing proteins and vitamins (fermented milk products, herbs, yeast, carrots, coniferous and grass meal).
Try to immediately teach the bird to eat greens. This will help in the future to do without additional costs for vitamins and supplements. After all, fresh herbs are a real storehouse of vitamins.
For egg breeds, calcium is of particular importance, it is necessary for the proper formation of the shell. Feed the bird with the same crushed eggshell, chalk, bone meal.
If the chickens are in an enclosed space, they should be given fish oil from 5 days of age at 0.1-0.2 g per chicken. It is advisable to mix fish oil with crushed grain, so it feeds faster.
At the age of one month, young hens should weigh 220-270, males - 290g, at three months - 970-1000 and 1150, at five months of age - 1600-1700 and 1900g. Thus, weight should be controlled in order to select the strongest individuals.
An approximate diet for egg chickens, g per head per day is presented in Table 2.
|Feed||Age of chickens, days|
|Ground and crushed grain||4||7||11||18||28||38||45|
|Hard boiled eggs||2||2||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fresh greens and boiled carrots||1||3||7||10||15||17||20|
Broiler chickens are characterized by a high growth rate, a rather large size and unpretentiousness in feeding. That is why most poultry farmers prefer broilers. In two months, birds reach 1.4–1.6 kg of weight.
They are usually not grown for more than three months, because subsequently they grow worse, and feeding broilers is already not so profitable.
Broiler chickens usually have little space. They should not move much, their main task is to gain weight.
After hatching, the broiler ration is almost no different from the diet of laying hens, except that broiler chickens need to be given more protein.
Compound feed should be administered from the second day to 20 g. For the first two weeks, pre-start compound feed is better. It has all the necessary elements for the growth and development of broiler kids. Starting from 14 days, starting feed is suitable, and from a month the birds are transferred to the finish feed. Be sure to read the composition of the feed before buying, it should include only natural ingredients.
From day 5, you need to introduce vitamins A, D2 and E into the feed. Taking vitamins will help to avoid many diseases, including rickets. From ten days of age, crushed carrots are added to the main feed in an amount of 5 g per head per day. From two weeks you can replace a quarter of the grain with boiled potatoes, at this age they begin to slowly give fish and meat. Do not forget about dairy products.
Number of feedings per day:
- in the 1st week - up to 8 times,
- in the 2nd - 6 times,
- in the 3rd - 4 times,
- from 1 month - 2 times.
A couple of weeks before slaughter, all additives and gravel should be excluded from the diet.
When broilers are fed, it should be borne in mind that the bird grows faster the first month, if dry protein-rich feeds are fed. A monthly chicken should weigh about 600-700 g. In the second half of the fattening, you can give more vegetables and herbs, and reduce the amount of protein dry food. By the age of two months, the broiler should weigh from 2 kg. Weekly weighing is required to control bird weight.