Currently, in connection with the rapid development of network and communication technologies, the need arises for the efficient use of new network technologies. In this area, the most urgent task is the creation and widespread introduction of automated training systems and diagnostics of the quality of knowledge of specialists into the educational process. Automated Learning Systems (AOS) have the following characteristics:
Flexibility. The opportunity to engage in a time convenient for yourself, in a convenient place and pace. Unregulated time span for mastering the discipline.
Modularity. The ability to form a curriculum that meets individual or group needs from a set of independent training courses - modules.
Parallelism. Parallel to professional activities, i.e. without interruption from production.
Coverage. Simultaneous access to many sources of educational information (electronic libraries, data banks, knowledge bases, etc.) of a large number of students. Communication through communication networks with each other and with teachers.
Profitability. The effective use of training facilities, technical equipment, vehicles, a concentrated and unified presentation of educational information and multi-access to it reduces the cost of training specialists.
Manufacturability. The use in the educational process of the latest achievements of information and telecommunication technologies that contribute to the advancement of a person in the global post-industrial information space.
Social Equality. Equal educational opportunities irrespective of the place of residence, state of health, elitism and material security of the student.
Internationality Export and import of world achievements in the market of educational services.
The new role of the teacher. AOC expands and updates the role of the teacher, who must coordinate the cognitive process, constantly improve the courses he teaches, and increase his creative activity and qualifications in accordance with innovations and innovations.
Positive impact renders AOS on a student, increasing his creative and intellectual potential due to self-organization, the desire for knowledge, the ability to interact with computer technology and make responsible decisions independently. Learning in automated learning systems is divided into two categories:
At synchronous Models students and teachers communicate in real time through virtual classrooms, using a combination of different methods of transmitting information.
At asynchronous student approach determines the pace of learning. In particular, he selects various storage media, can perform tasks in accordance with the classroom program or plan, and then transfer the finished work to the teacher for evaluation.
Designing automated training systems and diagnosing the quality of knowledge for a local network and the Internet allows us to automate not only the learning process based on lecture material, but also automate such a form of training as individual work of students, since a distributed model of information storage is the basis for such systems. In turn, the use of common formats for transmitting information on the Internet will expand the scope of application of automated training and diagnostic systems in various universities of the Russian Federation.
It is well known that the structure of training courses is based not only on lecture materials and practical exercises (Fig. 1.). One of the significant components of the structure of the training course is the individual work of students (IRS). Based on the provisions of modern GOST, IRSs are allocated from 17 to 34 hours of study time, and from 51 to 68 such hours for lecture materials. Thus, the use of the Internet as the basis for the design of automated training and diagnostics systems allows us to build a new model for the provision of educational knowledge for automated educational systems.
For example, if the structure of lecture material is called the core of knowledge (basic or basic knowledge), then educational material that is not included in the course of lectures, but relates to the topics studied in the framework of the discipline under consideration, can be called additional knowledge. The whole set of additional knowledge forms the environment of the nucleus. The environment of the core provides the material that the student needs to study during the IRS. The core of knowledge, together with the environment of the core, forms the macro model of the entire educational material within the framework of the discipline under consideration.
In this regard, the need to create an automated training system that meets all of the above requirements has been identified:
1. Learning is faster and absorbed deeper if the student is actively interested in the subject being studied.
2. Education is more effective if the forms of acquiring knowledge and skills are such that they can easily be transferred to the conditions of "real life", for which they are intended.
3. Learning is faster if the learner learns the result of each of his answer.
4. Education is better if the program on the subject is built on the principle of consistent presentation of the material.
5. Knowledge of the results of their work stimulates the implementation of the next task. Difficulties that the student needs to overcome must arise in front of him one after another, and successful overcoming them develops a high level of activity.
6. Since training itself is individual, the learning process should be organized so that each student can learn the program according to their individual characteristics. For a number of reasons, some learn the material faster than others, so learning both of them in the same group is difficult.
The following benefits of AOS were noted:
1. One of the obvious advantages of distance learning is that it allows students to learn each course at their own pace.
2. Since such a training course is usually offered in a structured form, for example, in the form of separate training modules, training using modern technologies is often more consistent and unified than traditional classroom training.
3. Another advantage of distance learning is that it allows you to abandon business trips of company employees to courses in another city.
4. Since remote training does not require personnel to travel to another place on purpose, this solution also helps reduce the loss of staff time.
5. Finally, distance learning can help companies get around some of the potentially unpleasant consequences of direct-to-work training. For example, some tasks can have extremely dangerous consequences for a working network. In such cases, it is much safer to provide the student with a closed “training ground” for experiments than to risk a system crash.
Unfortunately, planning, implementing, and supporting distance learning can be challenging. They may vary depending on factors such as the type of program, the needs of your organization, the purpose of the program, and the rate at which the curriculum is mastered.
The disadvantages of AOS are as follows:
1. AOS can create a significant load on the network, often taking up already scarce bandwidth.
2. In addition, it may require investment in expensive hardware.
3. Depending on the complexity of the AOS used, the costs of their implementation can quickly nullify all the economic benefits.
4. Depending on the combination of the means used to present information, as well as the number of students in the classroom and the volume of educational material, AOS often require more complex planning than traditional classroom classes. In particular, in the case of synchronous operation, insufficiently careful design and planning can cause various kinds of difficulties for both students and teachers.
5. Another issue is related to individual learning style. Some people simply cannot learn without direct communication in an audience. In such cases, the distance learning program may impede the assimilation of the material or increase the duration of training. At the same time, other students, however, can achieve great success through self-education, by a quick look at the information they are already familiar with and focusing on a more in-depth study of new material.
6. Another difficulty is that some students require external guidance to succeed.
Fig. one. The structure of the educational process
Thus, we see the creation of a training system based on procedural and declarative approaches that implement new information, including client-server technologies, which will allow us to implement operational quality control of training. The use of information technology is necessary at all levels of education - primary, secondary, higher. Without the introduction of information technology in the field of education, it is impossible to provide today's students with ample opportunities to obtain the use of information not only in their professional field, but in all areas of modern society.
Fig. 2. General system architecture
Forecasting the prospects of AOS with the help of modern technologies is not so simple, since their fate depends on many circumstances, some of which the creators of training programs and their potential customers can not influence. As practice shows, when it is necessary to cut the budget, often the first candidates for reduction are educational programs. In addition, the problem arises of the purchase of expensive equipment. Finally, the prospects for the spread of distance learning depend on such global factors as the general state of the economy. Now the high demand for highly qualified IT specialists is contributing to the active development of the training market, but this balance may be violated if the situation on the labor market changes significantly.
As we have already seen, many of these trends are real, so the future of distance learning looks promising. Although the industry will continue to depend on external circumstances, distance learning technology will probably be able to quickly adapt to new conditions.
1. Izergin N.D., Kudryashov A.A., Rudnev A.Yu., Tegin V.A. Development of electronic educational publications. Educational - practical manual Kolomna 2005.
2. Bashmakov M.I., Pozdnyakov S.N., Reznik N.A. Learning Information Environment. - St. Petersburg: LIGHT, 1997 .-- 400 s: ill.
3. New pedagogical and information technologies in the education system: Textbook. manual for university students, under. ed. E.S. Polat. - M., 2002 - 272 p.
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