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Axel in figure skating


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Jump sheepskin coat

In figure skating, the toe loop jump, from the English toe loop - “loop on the toe”, is considered one of the relatively simple. Most often, this jump is entered from the right foot, from a step called the “troika”, when the skater changes direction, turning on one leg. Moving back, the athlete pushes off the ice with the toe of his left skate. The skater lands again on the right foot, continuing to move backward.

The professional American skater Bruce Mapes invented the jump in the 1920s. In roller skating art, the jump is still called by his name. Another triple sheepskin coat, that is, a three-turn sheepskin coat, was first performed at the 1964 World Championships in Dortmund, Germany, by another American figure skater Thomas Litz. Which of the women first performed a triple sheepskin coat is not known for certain.

Today, the leading masters of figure skating mastered the sheepskin coat in four turns. According to some data, the first in official competitions was performed by Alexander Fadeev in 1983, according to others, the Czech athlete Jozef Sabovczyk in 1986. True, in both cases the jump was not counted by the judges due to errors. The first counted quadruple sheepskin coat performed Canadian Kurt Browning. The four-turn sheepskin coat has not yet been submitted to women. Several times, the Frenchwoman Surya Bonali unsuccessfully tried to execute it.

Lutz Leap

The Lutz jump is named after the Austrian skater Alois Lutz who performed it for the first time at official competitions in 1913. The technique of jumping is as follows. The skater moves back along a long arc on the outer edge of the left ridge. Squats on the same left foot and, pushing off the ice with the toe of the right skate, spins counterclockwise due to a swing of the arms and body. The skater lands already on his right foot.

Lutz is a very difficult jump, because it is done with counter-rotation. The natural impulse of the body during its execution is to switch at the last moment from the outer ridge of the ridge to the inner. The result is a cross between jumping lutz and flip. Specialists unofficially call this wrong lutz “flutz” and the judges significantly reduce points for it.

The first skater to perform Lutz in three turns, was the Canadian Donald Jackson. It happened at the 1962 World Cup. Only 12 years later, an athlete from the German Democratic Republic, Jan Hoffman, was able to repeat the jump. Among women, the first triple lutz was performed by the Swiss figure skater Denise Bilmann in 1978. The fourth Lutz was the first to submit to the American Brandon Mroz at the 2011 Grand Prix.

Item type

Axel is a jump, with a change of foot and a positively directed rotation. Its single variety implies 1.5 turns, and double (hollow) - 2.5 turns. The first duel of figure skating was in 1953. It was performed by Carol Hayss.

Reference! As a connecting element of the performance, a jump of 0.5 turns, called “cross over” or “Spanish”, can be used. Its execution usually does not cause difficulties, but it looks beautiful.

The triple axel in figure skating (3.5 turns) is a jump with a lunge and a triple turn. The execution of this difficult jump, which is the main thing in the women's program, consists in the correct grouping. Thanks to this, it will be possible to make 3.5 turns in a row.

This movement is relatively easy for men, and they should do it as part of the main program.

Interesting! A triple jump (trixel) is often lower than a double. This is due to the need to perform quick grouping.

All athletes who completed the triple axel during the Olympics receive a significant rating advantage. In the history of figure skating, only six women are known who have mastered this element. The first of these was Midori Ito (Tsunami Girl), who demonstrated her skills in 1988.

Reference! The record of 3.5 turns has not yet been broken. The story has no evidence that someone managed to complete a quadruple rib lunge jump.

Execution technique

Axel is considered to be a unique element in the technique of execution, since the athlete moves forward, and can only make an integer number of revolutions. At the stage of preparation for the jump, the skater greatly runs up, sliding backwards - outwards. The following sequence of actions is reproduced:

  1. The athlete pushes off.
  2. Fixes the body in a straight position (the pelvis does not protrude, the posture is flat, the head does not fall).
  3. Slows down, carries out an unsharp (but not too relaxed, otherwise it will reduce the quality of execution) transition to the main part.
  4. Having made 3.5 turns while in the air, it lands.

Step-by-step technique for performing an axel jump in figure skating:

  1. Warm-up glide (necessary for speeding and performed on the right foot).
  2. Lunge.
  3. U-turn with a shift in body weight to the left lower limb.
  4. Squatting movement (it needs to be done slowly).
  5. Slipping (performed on the left foot).
  6. Jump up.
  7. Slowing down with a ridge blade, followed by lifting the free leg forward.

After that, the athlete will need to turn around in the air the required number of times and, having grouped correctly, land on his right leg.

The initial rotation in the axel is created by a special locking movement made by the ridge of the pushing leg (although professionals can try some other options). An attempt to increase the curvature of the jogging arc will lead to a loss of stability. A similar result can be expected when the upper body rotates, after which the bottom also rotates.

Important! Learning the correct execution of an axel will take a long time and a lot. It will take not only to go to classes, but also to study a lot on their own.

Complexity of execution

During the competition, you can jump the axel no more than two times, and the second performance of the element will be taken into account only if it is part of a combination or cascade. The maximum score that can be obtained for him with high complexity is 8.5 points. If the speaker falls, then 1 point is taken away from him.

An axel (triple) as opposed to a sheepskin coat is an element difficult to execute. However, it will be easier to master if during training you focus not on landing, but on the rotation itself. You can even use special simulators that will improve the quality of performance of this part of the element. For beginners who wish to quickly get on the ice and conquer the heights of glory, we advise you not to rush, but to carefully and gradually study all the elements and jumps. Success depends on technology and skill in the future.

Jump technique

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The athlete with left rotation will perform the axel as follows:

  1. A jump is usually entered from a back-left sweep (i.e. counterclockwise).
  2. The skater for some time glides back and forth on the right foot, after which he lunges - turns forward and steps on the left foot, while sinking on it.
  3. Gliding on the left skate forward-out, the skater jumps into the air, while slowing down the skate and throwing the right (free) leg forward. Only braking and max are involved in the spin, a mistake is considered to twist the body.
  4. You need to quickly group in the air (except that a tall and distant single axel can actually be performed without grouping). Landing on the flywheel (right) leg back and forth.

Paradoxically, a triple axel is usually lower than a double. This is due to the requirement to quickly group together to crank 3.5 times.

It is possible to perform a jump from sweeping back to the right (clockwise) and from approaching from the right foot with the swing of the left foot and landing on the left foot. This occurs in left-handed skaters and in those rare cases when a skater can perform jumps in both directions. (Stefan Lambiel, for example)

Some skaters practice axel from unconventional approaches (triple back-in or “boat”) - such jumps are more difficult and not so beautiful, but definitely look unusual.

History of appearance and performance by athletes

Such a leap was first made in 1882Norwegian skater Axel Paulsen. In honor of him, and named this element. Moreover, it is worth noting that the performance was carried out not in curly, but in running skates.

For a very long time, only men performed the axel. Sonya Heny is the first of womenwho made it, however, is not perfect, judging by modern standards.

At the Olympics, Axel was the first to make Dick Button in 1948. The first pure triple axel performed in competitions belongs to Alexander Fadeev (1981).

Of the first women in the competition, she correctly performed the double axel Carol Hayss (1953)and triple - Midori Ito (1988).

The quad axel when speaking at the championships has not yet submitted to anyone.

How to do it right: execution technique step by step

Important! Do not rotate the housing!

It must be remembered that the triple axel is slightly lower than the double one, because for 3.5 revolutions Faster grouping required.

Some skaters are able to do it differently. So, lefties perform this element clockwise, because it is more convenient for them. And there are athletes who can jump from both legs. The most famous of them is Stefan Lambiel.

Photo 1. The famous skater from Switzerland Stefan Lambiel during the performances performs an axel jump from both legs.

Jumping can be complicated if you make a call in combination with another element, for example, from the "boat".

Jump phases

This is the only jump with a non-integral speed.

This happens due to the fact that the skater is riding forward, and is landing with his back, i.e. in a single axel will be 1,5 turnover, in double - 2,5, and in the triple - 3,5. Half-turn is done over the desk - jump three.

In addition to the traditional full axel, there are also other options. With them begin training or train to use in combinations and cascades.

Less than 1,5 turn

So-called loose-leaf or waltz jump. It is simpler and more beautiful, it is used to bind elements or during the transition. Full grouping is not required.

When jumping, landing takes place on the same foot with which it began. Is being done together with Salkhov in a cascade. Until 2011 such an element was not counted, the rules changed, and it is standardized.

Coach selection

The main condition is that he himself must be able to execute this element cleanly and correctly.

Axel should learn only led by an experienced athletebecause a jump is enough complicated and dangerous.

And if from the very beginning it is wrong to execute it, then it will be hard to relearn. Before starting training, the skater should already be able to make simpler elements.

Cross jump training

Better to start with a workout. without skates, on the floor. When the movement is practiced, you can go on the ice. Standing on the right leg, bending it slightly in the knee, take the left arm and shoulder back, and the right, respectively, forward. A step is made on the left foot and forward. You should turn your face in the direction of movement.

Now the left hand goes forward, the right hand goes back. With the right foot, the swing forward and upward is performed, at the moment of its completion the left one is sharply repelled from the ground. This is due to movement of the ankle and straightening in the joint.

The push leg is brought to the fly leg, there is a half-turn in the air and the departure to the right leg. The left one is retracted. And it turns out that a person turns his back on the direction of movement.

Reference! The movement is brought to automatism. A person learns to do it correctly and with safety precautions. Only after mastering this element proceed to further study of the axel in practice.

Take-off and jump

Take-off must be very powerful.

Go to sliding back and out. Very important maintain a steady, level position body when moving.

Before the push, it is important to track so that the hips do not protrude, the head does not fall, and generally no stoop occurs. Hands should be raised. it facilitate the implementation.

The transition from take-off to jerk needs to be done quickly. It is important that no changes in the direction of body movement. Movement begins due to a jerk of the foot, and then a jump occurs.

Stopper Options

Exist Several variants completion of the jogging arc.

  • Prong - the horse of the jerked leg rolls through its teeth and so comes off the ground.
  • Costal - braking occurs due to the rotation of the ridge of the supporting leg in the direction of sliding, that is, ice is scraping with its edge.
  • Combined - the beginning here is ribbed, the end is dentate, and so it will be most convenient for the athlete.

Each of them has its own peculiarity that distinguishes it from the rest. Jag gives a high horizontal speed, but with it there is less time for rotation. The rib helps to make more spins. But the combined, as the name implies, helps to combine pluses of both types. And therefore, it provides greater stability during execution.

Important! At double Axel often use a rib stop, combined less frequently. After all, the jump height is important here. At triple - more often combined.

Mach technique

Mach is done with free foot and arms. They allow you to gain greater altitude, flight length, and also control the number of revolutions. Maham also learn first in the room. When an athlete learns to do them, it is important to ensure that the trajectories of the arms and the fly leg are close to the longitudinal axis of the body, i.e. parallel to it and minimally far. And most importantly, the Mach direction should coincide with the direction of repulsion.

Photo 2. The ice skater makes the swings free leg and arm, so the flight length increases.

You can perform this exercise in the hall. Standing with your arms down, move your arms as far back as possible, and then forward. Important to comply strict parallelism and traffic consistency. The farther the skater manages to take them back, the greater the speed of the swing acceleration.

Reference! Hands should aim for horizontal position. Angle of the fly leg during abduction - 45 degrees. It should also be bent at the knee to improve the performance of the jump.


When teaching axel, it’s important constant training. This is the only way to succeed and learn how to make this complex element by all the rules. He submits to many only a year after the start of classes. So do not be upset if the axel is not immediately given. With constant exercise him easy to learn!