Novice farmers often ask how to feed rabbits. The diet of animals must be balanced. Foods of different types give in certain proportions: the winter and summer menus differ from each other, it has its own characteristics in different periods of the pet’s life.
The best way to feed rabbits
The technology of feeding rabbits takes into account the features of their digestion.
Due to intense peristalsis, food quickly passes through the digestive tract, but the first portions are pushed next. You need to feed your pets regularly, while the products must be healthy, balanced in composition.
They prefer to eat at night. Therefore, in the evening they are given rough food that they can gnaw on for a long time.
Ushastik likes to eat his own feces: this is his physiological need. Excretions contain a lot of vitamin B, slow down peristalsis and increase the digestibility of food. So that animals do not give up their habit, they can not be overfed.
Adult rabbits are fed twice a day in summer, three times in winter. Pregnant and giving birth to females, their young and growing young should be fed 3-4 times a day.
When feeding fodder on schedule, eared juice is produced in the eared, which helps to better absorb and process food.
The menu should include all the main food components, as well as trace elements with vitamins. Particularly important minerals are phosphorus, calcium, sodium.
Important! You can not give: certain types of herbs, red beets, milk and dairy products, meat waste.
Access to water is provided round-the-clock; they are changed in drinking bowls 2-3 times a day. For the prevention of diseases 1-2 times a week, animals should be given water with potassium permanganate or iodine.
Important! All food should be fresh, without mold or rot.
They are given in certain proportions, depending on the season, the physiological period of life. To calculate the amount of food, the concept of "feed unit" is used. It corresponds to the nutritional value of 1 kg of oats.
Green food is the main food from spring to autumn and in the summer season. They are rich in fiber, some varieties of herbs contain a lot of protein.
Most often used plants growing in the meadows, as well as crops, tops. In the summer, such food can significantly save, the content is cheaper, and the benefits of growing increases.
Here are some good plants to feed rabbits at home:
You can also feed animals with green oats, corn, young wheat, pea tops, beans and carrots.
Little by little give chicory, wormwood, dill. These herbs improve digestion. They will be especially useful if there are cabbage leaves or beets in the diet. It is undesirable to give them to females who have had an okrol. Small cubs can refuse milk, because it becomes bitter.
Important! Cabbage leaves and beet tops are introduced gradually: from them the stomach swells and diarrhea appears. Mustard is contraindicated in rabbits, although for other domestic animals it is an excellent fodder crop. You can not give the green part of tomatoes and potatoes, it is poisonous.
Meadow grasses that can not be fed rabbits:
Before harvesting, it is necessary to study the appearance of poisonous plants so that they do not fall into the composition of the food.
Fresh or wet greens are never given. It needs to be dried in the sun until it becomes a little lethargic. In the spring, such food begins to be given in small portions, gradually increasing volumes. If you immediately feed the rabbit a large amount of greens, he will have an intestinal upset.
rough food for rabbits is necessary both in winter and in summer. It contains minerals, some vitamins, most of which is fiber, which has a good effect on the digestive tract.
Coarse feed is equally important for proper digestion - this is hay and tree branches
This group includes hay and branches. They start harvesting from late spring to the end of summer.
Hay is mowed on a personal plot, meadow or in the country. You can not harvest herbs that grow in the city, near the tracks. They accumulate a lot of toxic substances that will harm the rabbit. Mowed hay is completely dried in the sun, and then stacked in hocks.
Branch feed for rabbits is an essential component of the diet. Even in the summer, they are constantly placed in cells.
On wood, animals grind their teeth, which they grow all their lives. In the absence of this food, they begin to gnaw at the cell. In addition, there are many vitamins and nutrients in the branches of bushes and trees. Oak and Willow, for example, help with diarrhea and prevent its occurrence.
You can feed rabbits with such branches:
White birch is not given in large volume, from it the work of the kidneys in animals is disrupted. In winter, include the needles in the menu - pine, Christmas tree, juniper. Ushastik eats them with pleasure.
Attention! You can not feed rabbits with branches of stone fruit: cherries, plums, apricots, cherries. They contain hydrocyanic acid, an extremely toxic substance. Also harmful: bird cherry, elderberry, buckthorn, wolf bast, rosemary.
How to prepare
Twigs are harvested in spring and summer, this season they have especially useful properties.
It is desirable to collect raw materials in the forest, gardens, in the country, away from the city and the highway. Cut shoots with a length of about 50 cm and a diameter of up to 0.7 cm. Tied in bundles of 30-40 pieces.
Dry in the yard, in a shaded place. Store in the attic or in the crib. The main thing is that the place is dry and Normally ventilated, otherwise the branch feed will deteriorate and become moldy.
Concentrated feed is the main source of nutrients; it contains vitamins A, E, D and B, which are necessary for growth and development.
With their help, they achieve rapid mass gain. They provide the necessary substances for rabbits during sucral and feeding.
It is best to feed rabbits at home with grain: oats, ears of corn, wheat, rye, and barley.
Oat is the main menu, it is well absorbed, has a whole set of healthy ingredients. Animals quickly gain mass, but do not grow fat.
Corn is also healthy, but it has few proteins and healthy amino acids. Therefore, it is advised to combine with other varieties of crops.
Wheat incorporates a lot of protein and fiber. It is important to give it in moderation, because overfeeding may cause obesity.
Rye and barley are heavy food, they should not be more than 20-25%. It is advised to give such a grain without shells or steamed. For better assimilation, yeast is carried out or cereal is germinated. At the same time, they are enriched with useful vitamins.
The menu should include legumes: peas, beans, lentils. These foods contain the most protein needed for muscle growth. Especially useful for females and males during mating, pregnancy, and after okrolya.
It is also advised to give bran animals. Cake and meal are added to the grain or juicy mixers. They are obtained by squeezing vegetable oil from sunflower, flax, soy, hemp, canola, they contain a lot of fats, protein and fat-soluble vitamins.
If the farm has a granulator, this significantly reduces the cost of growing, because balanced feed can be prepared independently. They contain all food components in the correct ratio, therefore they fully provide animals with nutrients.
Ready-made mixtures are a balanced feed that includes all the necessary nutrients for the growth and development of the animal
A special compound feed is produced for rabbits; it can 100% replace concentrated food. You can also use mixtures intended for calves and pigs (in the diet should not be more than 50-70%), the rest is replaced by cereals and oilcake with sunflower, soybean, hemp, flax.
Another good option is to give extruded feed. These are granules that are made on a special apparatus. These include crushed grains, beans, bran, oilcake, grass or hay.
It is important to choose the right ratio of all ingredients. Here is an example composition for an adult animal (per 1 individual):
- Grass - 40%
- Oats - 19%
- Barley - 24%
- Wheat bran - 5%
- Oilcake or meal - 10%
- Fish or meat and bone meal - 0.5%
- Vitamins, chalk, yeast - 1.2%
- Salt - 0.3%
- The Daily Norm for one rabbit is 170 g
The device can be purchased at an agricultural store and make combined granules at home.
All components are first heated and steamed in a special compartment. Then they are mixed, ground and passed through the holes.
The principle of operation of the extruder is similar to a meat grinder.
Juicy feeds occupy a significant part of the diet in the winter, replenish stocks of vitamins and minerals.
Especially important are such products for the rabbit, which started lambing, because they increase the amount of milk. At the same time, they contain some fiber and protein.
Juicy foods include vegetables, root crops and silage.
Root vegetables and vegetables
Useful juicy rabbit food and types of vegetables that should be included in the diet:
- Potato and peeling. It is given raw and boiled, mixed with crushed oats, wheat, corn, barley, animal feed or bran. It has good nutritional value due to starch.
- fodder and sugar beets. Suitable as raw and steamed. Improves metabolism, strengthens the immune system. This product should be given little by little so as not to cause diarrhea.
- Carrot. It has a high content of carotene, vitamins C, B1 and B2. Preference should be given to raw root crops.
- Raw or pickled cabbage. An important source of vitamins C and E, improves the quality of the coat. Give the leaves a little bit so as not to cause bloating.
- Zucchini, boiled and raw. Improves digestion and assimilation of food. It spoils quickly, so rabbits can eat it only from the second half of summer until mid-autumn.
- Pumpkin. It improves the quality of the coat, accelerates weight gain, strengthens the immune system, and contributes to the increase in milk after okrol. To keep the vegetable longer, it is frozen for the winter.
They also recommend watermelon and melon skins. Fruits should be limited. Preference is given to apples and hard pears.
Attention! Berries and stone fruits are contraindicated. You can not give garlic, onions, parsley, red beetweed and its cleaning, so as not to cause diarrhea.
Juicy silage is a great addition to the winter feeding of rabbits. It contains a lot of fiber, vitamins, is formed during fermentation without access to oxygen.
Harvesting silage is easy with your own hands. You need to do this in the summer, in the form of a mixture of herbs, tops with different vegetables.
The correct ratio of components in its composition:
- Herbs (legumes, phacelia, dandelion, plantain) - 30-40%
- Tops of carrots, leaves of lump cabbage - 30-40%
- Carrots or beets with turnips - 10-20%
- Cooked Potato (Crumpled) - 20-30%
All components are stacked in a cemented silo or wooden barrel.
To prevent air from entering, the pit is covered with a plastic film on top and sprinkled with straw, and the barrel is covered with sawdust and covered with clay.
Silo is ready for use after 1.5-2 months. It fully retains all the beneficial properties of its ingredients.
Vitamins and Minerals
Feed rabbits at home is not only hay, grass, cereals and succulent food. For them to grow well, they need vitamins and minerals.
Closer to spring, the reserves of vitamins in the body are running out, they need to be replenished. To supplement vitamin A and D, rabbits are given fish oil
The main vitamins and minerals:
- A - affects the condition of the coat and skin, prevents intestinal infections
- B - responsible for the state of the nervous system, skin, blood formation
- C - provides immunity, affects the state of blood vessels
- K - affects blood coagulation, reproductive functions
- E - an antioxidant, strengthens the immune system, helps female survivors to survive pregnancy, provides safe
- D - affects the development of bones, heart muscle, rabbits especially need during feeding and fast-growing young animals
- Calcium - useful for skeleton
- Phosphorus - Provides Calcium Exchange and Assimilation
- Sodium - needed for the work of the heart and muscles
- Iron - Prevents Anemia
The need for vitamins from the end of spring to the beginning of winter is completely covered by ordinary food - hay, twig and succulent food.
In winter and early spring, they are not enough, because in the products the content of these substances decreases. Therefore, they practice their artificial introduction: various additives are mixed into the food. They are also necessary for young animals during the period of rapid weight gain.
List of complex vitamin supplements:
- Purina or Purina
- Lolo Pets
- Fiori or Fiory
- Versel Laga or Versele Laga
- Sultan Twin
- Cooney Nature Rebalance or Cuni Nature Rebalance
- Little Wang or Little One
- Ruggeri coniglietti
- DL-methionine feed grade
- South crown
In addition, fish oil is added to the menu. It is rich in vitamins D, A and E. For young rabbits, 0.3-0.5 g per head per day is enough. Adults are given 1 g, and during mating, pregnancy and feeding - 3 g. For giant rabbits, the norm is increased by 0.5-1 g.
Minerals should be given year-round. Damp mixes are sprinkled with salt or the stone is suspended directly in the cage so that the animals can gnaw and lick it.
Young growth requires 0.5 g per day, adult rabbits - 1 g, and sucral and lactating females - 1.5 g. Calcium and phosphorus are contained in bone and fish meal, bone ash. Almost all ready-made additives have the whole complex of essential minerals.
How to make a diet
To properly feed rabbits, you need to create a diet with the optimal ratio of all types of food. At the same time, the season, age and physiological state of the animals must be taken into account.
A pregnant or pregnant woman needs to be fed more intensively.
Fattening before slaughter for quick weight gain also has its own characteristics, like the diet during the growth period of young animals.
The table shows the food consumption per rabbit.
|Age and physiological condition||Norma in the summer||Norma in the winter|
|Grass (gr)||Concentrate (gr)||Hay (gr)||Juicy food (gr)||Concentrate (gr)|
|Rest of males and females||600-70||30||150||150||40|
|For puppet rabbits||800||40-50||175||200||60|
|Pregnant females 4-7 months||900||50-60||250||300||70|
|For lactating rabbits in the first period||1200||60-70||200||300-400||85-90|
|For lactating rabbits in the second period||80 for each bunny||6 for each bunny||12 per cub||70 per cub||7 per cub|
|Young growth 3-4 months||500||45||100||300||55|
|For young animals in 5-7 months||600||55||150||350||75|
Standards may vary slightly when grown at home breeds of giants, with a body weight of 8-15 kg. It is recommended to give them 20-30% more food.
When feeding feed adhere to a certain order.
First, rabbits are fed juicy food, then they are given concentrates (corn, barley, oats, wheat), and finally green plants and hay.
In the morning they give more juicy and concentrated feeds, in the evening they focus on rough food.
Pour all feed into metal feeders.
It is advisable to remove juicy from the cage after 30-40 minutes, if the rabbits have not eaten them, otherwise it will deteriorate.
For feeding hay make a special nursery.
For concentrates, brooder-type feeders are used so that there is no overspending of feed. The same type of drinkers. Then it will always be fresh.
Basic feed types and nutrition rules
What are rabbit foods? By structure and nutritional value, they are divided into several categories:
It is necessary to combine different types of food for rabbits with each other in the right ratio. It depends on the time of day and season. The types of feed also change at different times during the rabbit's life. Here are some guidelines for feeding rabbits at home:
- Rabbits have weak peristalsis, food passes completely through the gastrointestinal tract only when a new portion is received, therefore access to certain feeds (hay, branches) should be around the clock.
- It is important to provide round-the-clock access to fresh water. This is especially necessary for the nursing rabbit so that she has enough milk for the rabbit.
- Useful fiber-rich foods should be 2/3 of the total menu.
- Rabbits should not be given food with a large amount of simple carbohydrates: they cause obesity, and in puppet rabbits, a miscarriage from such food can occur.
- When using several types of feed in one go, you should first give concentrated, and then juicy with vegetables, rough or green.
- New food is introduced gradually over 5-7 days.
- To maintain the health of pets, they should be fed only with high-quality and fresh food.
- All food is poured exclusively in special feeders so that the animals do not trample them.
- Rabbits often rake and eat their litter. Do not be scared, this is a normal process. There are a lot of B vitamins in the litter produced by bacteria and necessary for animals.
As you can see, feeding rabbits is not a big deal. Simple rules can be done even by a novice farmer.
Diet and Feeding
Before explaining how to feed domestic rabbits, you should talk about the proper preparation of the menu. Only balanced types of food will help animals grow quickly, gain weight and stay healthy. Make a menu based on the content of nutritious ingredients, minerals and essential vitamins in food.
They compose norms for feeding rabbits, focusing on such indicators:
- кормовая единица (соответствует 1 кг овса),
- усваиваемый белок,
- натрия хлорид,
- каротин (провитамин А).
Составление меню для кроликов
In normal home conditions, it is difficult to calculate all the indicators, a ready-made table is useful for a beginner farmer. It is important to remember that the little rabbit during the period of intensive growth requires more proteins, as well as the rabbit after the round. Meat and fur rabbits eat less protein.
How to feed rabbits at home and with what frequency? Use the scheme and feeding regimen of rabbits with a 3-time or 4-time meal. The first type is suitable for adult animals, the second - for rabbits up to 4 months old. In the morning and evening, concentrated feed, dried hay (in winter) and grass (in summer) are given to rabbits. For lunch, it is best to feed the animals succulent feed. For dinner, they also give coarse food in the form of branches or straw, useful mixed feed.
How to make silage
Silo feeding rabbits is most often used in large farms, but it is easy to cook it at home on a small farm. To do this, use green herbs, gourds, mixed with tops and root crops. All components should be crushed and well tamped. After that, they are put in a special pit. Its depth can be 1.5-2 m, the walls should be made of cement or wood. Sometimes a wooden barrel is used instead of a pit. The process of silage should take place without oxygen, it lasts 1.5-2 months.
The composition of the silo is different, everything is mixed in there with which you can feed the rabbit. Here is an example of the best mix:
- Legumes - 30-40%.
- Fodder cabbage with carrot tops - 30-40%.
- Shredded carrot root - 10-20%.
- Boiled potatoes soaked in water - 20-30%.
The rabbit eats feed silage more often in the winter. It replaces green herbs, partly - root crops. This useful product is simply necessary for the puppet and lactating rabbits, the growth of young rabbits. The fiber content in the silo is higher than in other succulent feeds, because it has a good effect on digestion.
Granular feed for rabbits
Concentrated feeds are often sold in the form of granules. It includes all the necessary components. Granules consist of grains, legumes, meat and bone and grass meal, minerals with vitamins. Granules can be prepared with your own hands, but for this you need to have a special device - an extruder. It resembles a large meat grinder with a press and heating. The cooking technology is simple, just fill the device with all the components and turn it on. After some time, finished compressed granules will appear from special holes.
The composition of the granules is different, include everything that you can feed rabbits. For their preparation at home, wheat with oats and bran, corn grain, barley, rye, green grass with tops and hay, root vegetables with vegetables, soybean meal and sunflower meal are used. Here is a fairly simple recipe for making rabbit food at home for fast weight gain:
- Flour from grass with hay - 40%.
- Barley grain, which can be replaced with oats - 30%.
- Wheat, which is often replaced with bran - 55.
- Sunflower meal - 10%.
- Peas - 8%.
- Yeast - 2%.
- Meat and bone meal - 1.6%.
- Phosphate - 0.6%.
- Normal table salt - 0.3%.
It is easy to fully feed rabbits with extruded feed, no matter how many heads there are on the farm. The pellets are harvested every 3-4 weeks, stored in a dry and dark place. Pellets are best used in winter, but they can also be used to provide summer feeding of meat rabbits on large farms. The consumption of pellets per rabbit is small. Even with the high cost of feed, it pays for itself completely. If you make pellets yourself, the cost of meat and skins will be even lower.
Minerals and vitamins in the diet
If we talk about feeding and special food for rabbits, you can not get around the issue of mineral and vitamin supplements. They must be included in the diet even when feeding young animals and adult animals with hay, vegetables, fresh green grass. Vitamins and minerals are needed to quickly gain weight, improve the condition of the coat, and prevent diseases.
The simplest mineral supplements are salt and chalk, as well as fish and meat and bone meal containing a lot of phosphorus and calcium. The norm of salt is 3-5 g per day, other mineral supplements - according to the instructions. Modern livestock farmers prefer to use ready-made combined complexes. In them, all components are balanced and fully satisfy all the needs of animals. Ushastik grows fast and feels great. Here is a list of the most popular finished preparations with mineral salt and vitamins:
The little rabbit is growing rapidly, the daily feed rate does not fully satisfy its need for certain vitamins, so small animals must be given healthy fish oil (contains vitamin D, which is necessary for the development of the skeletal system and muscles, and vitamin A). How much do you need to give fish oil to animals? The norm for one head is 0.3-0.5 g. Adults should also give this supplement in an amount of 1 g per head, and for sucral and rabbits giving birth - 3 g each.
A puppet rabbit carries babies for about a month. In the litter there can be 2-3 rabbits, and 8-10 small animals. From the first days, young animals are fed milk. The mother who gave birth must be properly fed and watered a lot. If the kids have enough milk, they are calm and quickly recover. When the mother does not have enough milk or she refuses to feed offspring, artificial feeding is used.
How to feed the little rabbits? If the female’s lactation is poor, youngsters can be fed from the bottle. Use ordinary milk mixtures, diluted cow or goat milk. She eats a rabbit 5 times a day. The first feeding should be carried out in the early morning, at 6 o’clock, and the last - at 23 o’clock in the evening. The night break is 8 hours.
After 20 days, the rabbit is gradually transferred to adult feed. First they give him carrots, lettuce leaves, then add cabbage, a mixture of boiled potatoes with bran. Around a month, concentrated feed is included in the diet, at the same time young hay is fed. The pups are sedimented from the mother in 25-45 days. With early deposition, the female is more likely to hunt and have a new pregnancy. But after frequent birth, the rabbits quickly become exhausted.
Monthly rabbits are also fed with vegetables, hay, bran, grain. Be sure to feed with salt, chalk, fish oil and vitamins. You can give rabbits branch feed, oilcake and soy, cereal and grass granules. At 2-3 months, males and females are selected for further breeding. The remaining animals are grown with intensive feeding, so that in 4-5 months, depending on the breed, send them to slaughter.
What to feed rabbits: types of feed
The diet of rabbits that are fattening and breeding individuals should be as diverse as possible, consist of products that can provide animals with all the substances they need. By combining various feeds, you can create a menu so that the food is nutritious, vitamin-rich, not bored and rabbits ate it with pleasure.
What are the types of feed
It is important for rabbits to receive a varied diet. The following types of feed must be present in the daily menu:
To green are herbs, vegetable tops. Greens contain many vitamins. Rough foods are tree branches, hay, which rabbits need to grind their teeth. This food is enriched in fiber, and it is necessary for the normal digestion process.
Juicy foods include root vegetables, vegetables and fruits. They also contain many useful substances: vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Thanks to such food, the immunity of pets is strengthened. The basis of the diet of rabbits are concentrated feed: cereals, beans. They contain protein and have high nutritional value. Thanks to the concentrates, animals grow quickly and gain weight.
In summer, green feeds are necessarily introduced into the daily menu of pets - all kinds of herbaceous plants and tops of vegetables, legumes and leguminous-cereal crops. Such food in the warm season is 30-40% of the total diet of pets, it is available and healthy.
Rabbits eat forest and meadow plants well, growing on the forest edges lit by the sun, in the floodplains of the rivers. Grasses growing in wetlands, such as sedge, horsetail, do not like pets too much, because they taste sour. In large quantities, such plants do not give rodents to avoid digestive problems.
Rabbits eat forest and meadow plants well
What kind of grass can rabbits eat:
Rabbits are happy to eat vegetable tops. Those gardening have such food in abundance. Pets will certainly appreciate the tops:
- sugar beet fodder
- Jerusalem artichoke,
Attention! It is dangerous to give tomato tops to rabbits.
Potato tops are harvested 5-7 days before the date of harvesting root crops and dry. Enter it into the diet gradually, starting with a small amount, gradually increasing the volume over 10 days. Even when animals get used to new food, the number of potato tops in the daily menu of rabbits should not exceed 15% of the total green mass. The aerial parts of fodder or sugar beets are offered to rodents little by little, because it weakens. It is better to combine it with food that has astringent properties - oak bark and leaves, yarrow.
You need to collect and harvest herbs before they begin to bloom, away from industrial areas and highways. Freshly cut plants first wither in the shade, and then treat animals.
The transition to green feed in the spring should be carried out gradually.. It is important to monitor the condition of the animals. In case of digestive upset, the proportion of greens is reduced, and hay is increased.
Attention! When distributing fresh grass, it is important to make sure that poisonous plants are not included in the total mass: dope, cornflower, poisonous ranunculus, celandine, hellebore, euphorbia, field mustard.
The share of roughage in the rabbit diet is 25% of the total volume. These include tree bark and twigs, hay. They begin to harvest branch forage from the middle of June, when most of the nutrients are concentrated in it. Branches up to half a meter long are cut from the trees; their thickness should not exceed 1 centimeter. Then they are dried under awnings in the fresh air or in the attic. For the winter, branches resemble small brooms and are stored in a dry place.
Reference. When rabbits eat branch feed, they do not gnaw at their cages.
Branches and tree bark are suitable for nutrition:
Branches taken from stone fruit trees: cherries, plums, cherries - contain hydrocyanic acid, so they are either not offered eared at all, or give very little.
Attention! Birch bark and branches can disrupt the kidneys in rabbits.
In winter, you can replenish the vitamin reserve in the body of pets using twigs of coniferous trees. In summer, it is better not to offer them to rabbits, since they contain too much essential oil and resins, the amount of which decreases in winter. Such food should be introduced into the diet gradually, starting with 10 grams, gradually increasing the volume per week to 200 grams per head. After 2-3 weeks of feeding the needles, it is recommended to take a break for 10-14 days, and then you can reintroduce this vitamin supplement into the diet.
Sprigs of conifers
For harvesting hay use the same herbaceous plants that feed rabbits in the summer. It is more correct to mow the grass before its flowering, then it contains more vitamins. Hay is dried, spread out with a loose layer in the shade. It is periodically ted to achieve uniform drying. The finished product should have a pleasant smell and a muted green tint. Hay is kept in rooms with good ventilation.
For one rabbit, about 40 kg of dry grass is harvested for the winter. It is necessary to make a supply of hay in case of addition to the farm: for each rabbit that can be born in winter, they harvest up to 15 kg of dry grass. With a lack of this food, it is important to leave it for lactating and sucral females and young animals. On males in the winter, you have to save by offering them straw.
Juicy foods include vegetables, root crops and silage. In the fall, when the vegetation disappears, they make up a significant part of the eared diet. The advantage of succulent feeds is that they are enriched with vitamins, minerals and minerals, and the disadvantage is that they have almost no protein and fiber. Such food is very popular with rodents, because it is easily digested and contains about 80% moisture.
Root vegetables and vegetables
Eared pets are happy to eat all kinds of vegetables and root crops. What crops can be introduced into their diet:
Although the potato is not high in vitamins, it is rich in starchy substances, thanks to which rabbits quickly gain weight. It is offered mainly in boiled form, and in raw - in small quantities. Pets eat it well in the form of mash.
Reference. Potato peeling with eared is also fed, after washing them from dirt.
Carrots are a favorite treat of rabbits. This root crop is a valuable source of carotene, B vitamins and trace elements. It is best to feed the animals with carrots, cutting them into cubes, fresh.
Pumpkin is also rich in carotene, it normalizes digestion, promotes the production of milk in lactating rabbits. This vegetable is given to animals in raw and boiled form. Starting from two months old, rabbits are introduced into the diet pumpkin in the form of mashed potatoes.
Rabbits are very fond of cabbage, and its different types are equally good at eating cabbage, fodder, and kohlrabi. It is a source of vitamin C, E and trace elements, which means it has a beneficial effect on the immunity of pets.
Important! Rabbits should not be given a lot of cabbage - it contributes to increased gas formation.
Long-eared Jerusalem artichokes are readily eaten; it is tastier than potatoes. This vegetable can be given fresh or after heat treatment, cut into pieces. Earth pear contributes to the normal functioning of the digestive tract. It is interesting that you can store this root crop in winter directly in the ground, it is not afraid of frost, and therefore it is better not to dig it out in the fall.
Beetroot (red) is not suitable for feeding rabbits; it can harm their digestive system. But fodder and sugar varieties are used in the diet of animals. These root crops improve metabolism, increase hemoglobin, strengthen the immunity of animals. An adult rabbit can eat about 300 grams of beet pulp daily.
Zucchini does not have a high nutritional value, contains about 85% water. However, he is loved by pets, so a little zucchini is included in the menu of rabbits in the fall. Until winter, this vegetable is not able to be stored. The fruit is used to prepare silage.
Owners of crawfish farms always procure silage for their animals. It is useful for their digestive system and immunity. It is prepared from grass, tops and juicy vegetables and root crops. Each farmer uses his own silage recipe, the amount of ingredients in it can be changed. Here is an example of the nutritional composition that rabbits like:
- 30% legume grass
- 20% carrot tops,
- 10% chopped cabbage leaves (can be replaced with zucchini),
- 20% finely chopped carrots,
- 20% boiled mashed potatoes.
Silage is prepared in special pits or wooden barrels. All ingredients are crushed, mixed and tamped. After 1.5-2 months, the feed is ready for use.
Reference. For each rabbit family, about 100 kg of silage should be prepared for the winter.
In summer, concentrates are primarily included in the rabbit diet. They should be at least 30-40 percent of the total amount of food per day. Approximately 30% of the diet is allocated to green fodder, 20% - to juicy and 10-20% - to roughage.
It is important to follow the rules of feeding:
- In summer, concentrates are distributed first, and then juicy and green food.
- It is important to develop the correct schedule for feeding animals, despite the fact that they spend almost all the time at the feeder.
- Adults, as well as rabbits, weaned from the mother, should be fed no more than 3 times a day.
- For puppet and lactating females and their cubs under the age of 2.5 months, food is distributed 4 times a day.
Let's look at examples of how to organize a regimen and draw up a diet for rabbits in the summer.
Three meals a day
Fresh grass for the rabbit
With three meals a day in the morning, at 6-7 hours, pets should be given half the daily norm of concentrates and a third of the norm of fresh grass. At lunchtime, about 14-15 hours, pets should receive a third of the norm of green food. In the evening, at about 19 hours, the animals are given the rest of the concentrates, a third of green food and roughage.
Attention! If root vegetables and vegetables are introduced into the diet in summer, then they reduce the greenhouse.
Four meals a day
At dawn, a third of the concentrates and a sixth of the grass are handed out. The same in the same amount offer about 11 hours. Then at 16 hours should give out half the daily norm of green food. In the evening feeding, about 19-20 hours, offer the animals the rest of the concentrates, a sixth of the greens and rough food - branches.
Attention! It is forbidden to give rabbits rotten vegetables, moldy silage, dirty root crops, freshly cut or wet grass, and also poisonous plants. Нельзя предлагать животным конфеты, печенье и другие лакомства.
Летом кормить кроликов намного проще, чем зимой, ведь вокруг столько зелени и овощей. Важно соблюдать режим питания ушастых питомцев, а также тщательно проверять кормовую базу перед раздачей. Пища должна соответствовать нормам качества. Если рацион будет разнообразным, о здоровье поголовья не придётся беспокоиться. High-quality nutrition contributes to the rapid growth of young animals and weight gain, has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin.
The use of vitamin and mineral supplements
Vitamin preparations are usually administered in late winter, when there are not enough natural vitamins in the feed. They can be bought at a veterinary pharmacy, the range of products is quite wide, for example, they are popular:
Depending on the route of administration, the drugs are injected, vitamins are added to water or just to food.
They give fish oil, as well as oily solutions of tocopherols and calciferols, retinol. To replenish the rabbits body with vitamins, especially compounds from group B, they are given yeast, baker's and brewer's yeast, and to replenish vitamins and animal protein, they are given fishmeal and meat and bone meal (5-10 g per individual). Tricalcium phosphate is also used, from which rabbits receive calcium and phosphorus.
Fish oil is given to rabbits in the following volumes (per individual):
- rabbits - 0.3-0.5 g,
- adult livestock - 1 g,
- rabbits during succulence and feeding - 3 g.
The usual salt is given in a volume of 0.5-1 g per 1 head (young) and 1-1.5 g per 1 adult.
Summer feeding ration
Rabbits should be fed in summer with ordinary fresh grass, cereal and bean grains, concentrates, vegetables, fruit carrion, root crops. How much in quantitative terms and what products to give depends on the sex, age and current state of the animal organism. The summer diet of rabbits should be complete and as diverse as possible.
It is necessary to feed rabbits at home, following certain rules:
- Give them foods containing fiber.
- Feed exclusively high-quality feed.
- With the simultaneous distribution of several types of feed, first the rabbits are given grain and concentrates, and then juicy, in the end - grass or hay.
- New products are introduced little by little, for at least a week, in small portions, then gradually increase the volume. Animals are also gradually being transferred from summer to winter food and vice versa.
- Rabbits should always have water, they change it every day, they heat it in winter.
To prevent rabbits from trampling the food, special bunker feeders are used, from which animals take it out dosed.
Norms and feeding patterns
Adult rabbits should be fed at least 2 times, and even better 3 times a day. But the younger the livestock, the more often they should receive food. The maximum number of feedings is 4 times a day, more often they give food only to weaners. It’s easier to feed the rabbits not by hand, but to put in special bunker feeders and senniki, fill them with food, of which the animals themselves will take as much and when necessary.
Rabbits can eat often, almost constantly, but the best result can be achieved by feeding them according to the regimen. For example, experienced rabbit breeders use such schemes.
|Winter 3 times feeding:||Winter 4-times feeding:|
|8 hours - half the daily volume of concentrates and hay,|
12 hours - juicy food,
17 hours - the second half of hay, twigs and grain.
11 hours - a third of concentrates and half juicy,
16 hours - half of hay, vegetables and root crops,
19 hours - a third of the grain and a quarter of the norm of hay + branches.
15 hours - a third of the volume of greenery,
19 hours - half of the concentrates, a third of greenery + branches.
11 hours is the same
16 hours - half the norm of the grass,
19 hours - a third of concentrates, 1/6 of grass + branches.
At about 1 month, babies already begin to eat on their own. At this time, they are gradually transferred to feed, which eats the rest of the livestock. Monthly rabbits are fed fresh, but dried grass, chopped grain, bran, grated vegetables, potatoes, root crops.
As young animals grow, the norms for all feeds increase. Animals intended for meat are separated separately and fed according to a special scheme. Salt and chalk to all rabbits, starting from 5-7 months, give the same - 1-1.5 g all year round. Until this age, the norm is 2 times less.
In preparation for mating
Tribal animals are also fed with grass, tops, weeds, grain mixtures in summer and winter, root crops, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables. Food during this period (2-4 weeks before mating) should be organized so that the rabbits are moderately well-fed, but not overweight.
In the feed there must certainly be full-fledged proteins and minerals, so legumes, grain and grass, fish and meat and bone meal are certainly added to the menu of future parents.
The nutrient requirement of the female feeding the offspring is even more increased, therefore, the older the rabbits become, the more they should be given food. 2 days before birth and after the animal is fed with hay and given water, then transferred to a normal diet.
It must necessarily contain succulent feed, grass with a high content of protein and minerals, dairy products, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, dill, a lot of water. For a rabbit 3-5 kg weighing 19.5-32.5 g of protein and 90-150 starch units are needed. The rabbits that are with the female will try the same that she eats, so there is no need to specially feed them.
What to feed for fast growth and weight gain
In the household, rabbits are raised mainly for meat. For feeding rabbits for meat at home, you can use various schemes, but protein and carbohydrate products are mandatory. Grass and fresh vegetables still remain the basis of the diet, but it should also contain grains of various crops, whole or crushed, oilcake and bran. For fast growth, you need to feed the rabbits with legumes - a green mass of plants and ripe grain.
When young animals grow up, to quickly gain weight, they need to feed rabbits with that food, which is dominated by carbohydrates and fats, that is, potatoes, grain, add animal feed - fish and meat and bone meal, concentrated milk powder, fish oil.
What can not be fed
At home farms, regardless of their size, you can’t feed rabbits with poor-quality products: moldy, dirty and frozen root crops, fruits and vegetables, raw hay. It is not advisable to feed the tops of potatoes and tomatoes, red beets, red cabbage.
You can not feed such plants as:
Flour products from white flour, muffin, sweets for rabbits are also not suitable for food. Small rabbits should not be given barley unpeeled from shells, and rabbits of any age should not be given apricots and plums with pits.