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How to install Arch Linux

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This document is a guide to installing Arch Linux from under a system running from an official installation image. Before installation, it is recommended to look at frequently asked questions. For an explanation of the concepts used on this page, see Help: Reading. In particular, code examples may contain placeholders (formatted in italics ), which must be replaced manually.

For more detailed instructions, see the relevant ArchWiki articles and man pages for various programs. References to both are provided in this manual. You can also get help in the IRC channel and in the English and Russian-language Arch Linux forums.

Arch Linux can run on any x86_64-compatible machine that has at least 512 MB of RAM. A basic installation with all packages in the base group takes up less than 800 MB of disk space. Since the installation process requires receiving packages from a remote repository, a working Internet connection is required.

Signature Verification

It is recommended that you verify the signature of the image before using it, especially when it was downloaded from HTTP mirrors, where downloads are usually subject to interception to replace the image with a malicious one.

On systems with GnuPG installed, this can be done by placing PGP signature (located on the download site in the section Checksums) to the directory with the image and running the command:

Alternatively, you can verify the signature from the installed Arch Linux:

Download live

The live environment can be downloaded from a USB drive, an optical disk, or from a network via PXE. For information on other installation methods, see the Category: Installation process (English) category.

  • Make the installation media with Arch bootable. Usually, when you turn on the computer, a special key is pressed (sometimes it is indicated on the splash screen) during the POST phase to select a boot device. Refer to your motherboard manual for exact instructions.
  • When the Arch menu appears, select Boot arch linux and press Enter to enter the installation environment.
  • See README.bootparams for a list of boot options. And for the list of included packages - packages.x86_64.
  • You will be logged in as the superuser in the first virtual console and you will see the Zsh interpreter prompt in front of you.

To switch to another virtual console during installation, for example, to view this guide using the ELinks browser, use the Alt + hotkeysarrow . Nano, vi and vim are available for editing files.

Set keyboard layout

The default is the US console layout. To see a list of available layouts, run:

To change the layout, add the name of the corresponding file to the loadkeys (1) command without specifying the full path and extension. For example, to select the Russian layout, run:

Console fonts are located in the / usr / share / kbd / consolefonts / directory and can be selected using setfont (8).

Check loaded mode

If UEFI mode is enabled on the motherboard, Archiso will boot Arch Linux accordingly using systemd-boot. To verify this, look at the contents of the efivars directory:

If such a directory does not exist, the system may be loaded in BIOS or CSM mode. For more information, refer to the manual of your motherboard.

Internet connection

To configure a network connection, follow these steps:

  1. Make sure your network interface is listed and enabled, for example using ip-link (8):
  2. Connect to the network. Insert an Ethernet cable or turn on the wireless network.
  3. Set up your network connections:
    • Static IP
    • Dynamic IP: using DHCP.

Disk layout

When the running system recognizes drives, they become available as block devices, for example, / dev / sda or / dev / nvme0n1. To see a list of them, use lsblk or fdisk.

Results ending in rom, loop and airoot can be ignored:

On selected drive must be present following sections:

  • Section for the root directory /
  • If UEFI mode is enabled, an EFI system partition is required

If you want to create a composite block device for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, do it now.

Schema Examples

BIOS with MBR
Mount pointSectionSection Type Recommended Size
/ mnt/ dev / sdX1LinuxThe remainder
[SWAP]/ dev / sdX2Linux swapMore than 512 MB
UEFI with GPT
Mount pointSectionSection Type Recommended Size
/ mnt / boot or / mnt / efi/ dev / sdX1EFI system partition 256-512 MB
/ mnt/ dev / sdX2Linux x86-64 root (/)The remainder
[SWAP]/ dev / sdX3Linux swapMore than 512 MB

Partition Formatting

When partitions are created, each of them must be formatted into a suitable file system. For example, if the root partition needs to be formatted to the file system ext4 and it is designated as / dev / sdX1, execute:

If you created a swap partition, initialize it through the utility mkswap:

See File Systems # Creating a File System for more information.

Partition Mounting

Mount the file system of the root partition in the / mnt directory, for example:

Create mount points for all other partitions (for example, for / mnt / efi) and mount them in the appropriate partitions.

Subsequently, genfstab will detect mounted file systems and swap space.

Mirror Selection

Installation packages must be downloaded from the mirror servers specified in the /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist file. In the installation image, all mirrors are turned on and sorted by synchronization status and speed at the time of creation of this installation image.

The higher the mirror is located in this list, the higher priority it has when downloading a package. Most likely, you will want to edit this file to move up the most geographically close mirrors to you. Also consider other criteria.

Later pacstrap will copy this file to the new system, so it's really worth doing.

Installing major packages

Use the pacstrap script to install the base package group:

This group does not contain all the tools available on the installation media, for example, it does not have btrfs-progs and specific firmware for wireless network devices, the list can be found on the packages.x86_64 page.

To install other necessary packages or groups, for example, base-devel, add their names to the command pacstrap (separating them with a space) or use the pacman commands after the #Chroot step.

Localization

Include en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other necessary locales (for example, ru_RU.UTF-8 UTF-8), uncommenting them in the file /etc/locale.gen, and then generate them:

Create the locale.conf (5) file and set the required value in it for the LANG variable:

If you changed the keyboard layout, make this change permanent in the vconsole.conf (5) file. Also add a font for the console with Cyrillic support:

Network configuration

Add the appropriate entry to the hosts file (5):

If the system has a fixed IP address, it should be used instead of 127.0.1.1.

Complete the network setup for the newly installed environment.

As a rule, creating a new image initramfs not required since pacstrap automatically starts mkinitcpio after installing the linux package.

If you are using LVM, system encryption or RA> mkinitcpio.conf (5) and recreate the image initramfs:

Reboot

Exit the chroot environment by typing exit or pressing Ctrl + D.

You can unmount all partitions with the umount -R / mnt command to make sure that none of the partitions are left occupied by any program. If necessary, use fuser (1) to search for such programs.

Now reboot your computer by typing reboot: if any partitions remain mounted, systemd will unmount them. Remember to remove the installation disc. After downloading, log in as superuser.

Training

You can download the latest slice of the distribution on the official download page: https://www.archlinux.org/download/.

After the download, you need to burn the image to an external device, such as a CD or USB flash drive. You can burn the image to a CD with the program wodim from the set cdrkit.

Install Arch Linux

In the framework of this article, I would like to consider as detailed as possible the installation procedure for this platform, taking into account the preliminary configuration of all components. We divided the whole process into steps, so that novice users would be easier to navigate. For the installation itself, you just need a flash drive with a minimum volume of 2 GB or the same drive. Everything else is downloaded from the Internet or added directly during the installation of the OS. Note that the addition of all necessary components is done through an active Internet connection.

Step 1: Download the distribution image

The platform under consideration, like most other distributions, is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the official website of the developers. We recommend that you use this source, as you are guaranteed to get a working image without any errors and malicious files inside.

    Follow the link above and select the section "Download".

You can use any mirror, but we recommend choosing a BitTorrent link.

Now the computer has a full-fledged image of the operating system. It remains only to write it to a disk or flash drive, after which it will be possible to proceed directly to the installation procedure.

Step 2: Create Bootable Media

Now USB sticks are more popular, because they are more convenient than drives, and a suitable connector is present on absolutely all computers. Therefore, we will dwell on this option. You will need to use a special program that will create a bootable one from a regular flash drive. Detailed instructions on this topic can be found in our separate article at the following link.

Step 3: BIOS setup to start the bootable USB flash drive

As you know, the installation of the operating system begins after connecting the drive and rebooting the computer. In this case, it is important that the BIOS starts the boot from the USB flash drive, and not the hard drive. To ensure the successful completion of this task, you will need to manually prioritize through the BIOS settings. To understand this procedure will help our other material further.

Step 4: Download the installer and enter Live mode

After completing the previous step, it will be enough to insert the USB flash drive into a free slot and start the PC. After a certain amount of time, the Arch Linux boot loader appears on the screen. It contains several items, for example, rebooting or viewing hardware information, but now you are interested "Boot Arch Linux". Use the arrows on the keyboard to select this item and press the key. Enter.

The download of all standard components for Live mode will begin. This may take several minutes, so do not turn off the PC and do not press any keys on the keyboard. After a successful download, you will enter Live mode with a console, where the further installation procedure is performed.

Step 5: Partitioning the Hard Drive

Partitioning a hard disk is the first thing a user will encounter when installing the platform in question. For the OS to work correctly, all disk space should be divided into several logical volumes, each of which will store its own information, while storage parameters are also set manually. In general, the process is simple, you just need to execute a few commands and carefully monitor their writing in the console.

    Partitioning the drive is best done through a standard utility, and to run it in "Terminal" need to enter cfdisk / dev / sda.

The partition table is selected first. GPT is considered to be a newer one, therefore it is better to use it if you can not decide on your own.

Use the arrows on the keyboard to move between connected devices. Select the drive for partitioning and activate the item "New"by going to it with the arrows To the left and To the right.

First, space is allocated for the GRUB bootloader. It provides the correct launch of the operating system. It is always recommended to select a separate section for it. You only need to set the volume of the volume and click on Enter. 200 MB is enough for the bootloader.

If you select the GPT partition table rather than the MBR, an additional logical partition is created to store the bootloader image. Choose again "Free space" and "New".

The bootloader image should be set aside 1 megabyte of free space.

Now set this section to a specific type so that it will load at startup. To do this, select in the table "/ Dev / sda2" and go to the menu "Type".

Use the arrows on the keyboard to "BIOS boot" and click on Enter.

Additionally, a root partition is created where all system files will be placed. Again, in the table, follow the usual steps, specifying the size of 20-30 GB.

Next, create a partition that will act as the home directory. Allocate almost all available space for it, leaving a few gigabytes for the page file (the recommended size of the page file in Arch is equal to the amount of RAM in the PC). Finally, after the home directory, create a swap file, and you should end up with five sections. At the end of the procedure, save the changes by selecting "Write".

Confirm the entry by writing in the line Yes.

After all, you can exit the section editor by clicking on "Quit"

At the end of this step, the hard disk will be divided into the required number of partitions. The user will only have to configure them by setting the file system and priorities, after which everything will be ready for installation.

Step 6: Format and Mount Drive Partitions

Now all created partitions do not belong to certain file systems and formatting should be done to install them. Due to the fact that all volumes were created manually, formatting and mounting should also be done independently.

    The bootloader section is better off defining the FS format "Ext2"to ensure the best possible performance. Therefore, in the console, activate the command mkfs -t ext2 -L Boot / dev / sda1, where / dev / sda1 - name of the first created section.

The second section of the initial image does not need formatting, so go to the main system directory and format it in a format familiar to many "Ext4" by typing mkfs -t ext4 -L Root / dev / sda3.

Exactly the same action is required to be performed with the home directory, writing the expression mkfs -t ext4 -L Home / dev / sda4.

The swap file is also not formatted, so mount it immediately via mkswap / dev / sda5.

Connection of created partitions is also performed manually, only after that they will be suitable for work. Start with the root directory of sudo mount / dev / sda3 / mnt.

Next, create separate folders for the bootloader and home directory through sudo mkdir / mnt / .

It remains only to mount the remaining partitions by entering the lines mount / dev / sda1 / mnt / boot, mount / dev / sda4 / mnt / home and re-swapon / dev / sda5.

All sections have been successfully prepared for further installation of the Arch OS on them. If everything went without any errors, feel free to proceed to the next step.

Step 7: System Installation

As mentioned earlier, for a full installation of Arch you will need an active Internet connection, since additional components are downloaded from official repositories. If a wired connection is established immediately, then for Wi-Fi you need to alternate the following commands:

wifi-menu
ls / etc / netctl
netctl start profile

Having determined the connection, you can proceed to the installation, but first we recommend choosing the most optimal mirror so that the download process goes as quickly as possible:

    Run the file with mirrors via the vim /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist command.

Copy one of the mirrors by double-clicking on the key y, and then drag it up the list by pasting with p. Exit the file by pressing Shift +: and entering wq.

Run the package installation procedure by entering pacstrap / mnt base base-devel.

Wait for the installation to complete. During this operation, do not restart the computer or press any keys on the keyboard.

Adding packages will be completed when a new line of input is displayed in the console. This means that you can begin the initial setup of the system.

Step 8: setup after installation

It is important not only to add all the necessary components, but also to configure the main parameters so that the interaction with the OS is as comfortable as possible. Pay attention to the following actions, they are just designed for the optimal configuration:

    First of all, a configuration file is created in the system folder for all mounted file systems. It will not only store useful information, but also describe the type of disk integration in the OS. To create a component, use the command genfstab -U / mnt >> / mnt / etc / fstab.

The bootloader is not ready yet, so you cannot reboot. For further configuration, log in via arch-chroot / mnt.

Set the time zone via sudo timedatectl set-timezone Europe / Kiev, where Europe / Kiev - necessary region. With the following command, use sudo timedatectl set-ntp 1 to set the network time protocol.

You have previously encountered working in a text editor vim before installing Arch Linux, but now this important component is missing from the system itself. You can install it using pacman -S vim or pacman -Sy vim.

Confirm the addition of packages by selecting the appropriate option when prompted.

After this, the encodings that the OS will work with are activated. Необходимо это для корректного отображения различных символов кириллицы и латиницы. Запустите подходящий конфигурационный файл: vim /etc/locale.gen .

Уберите знак # с подходящих строк, например, с en_US.UTF-8 и ru_RU.UTF-8 . Сохраните изменения и выйдите из редактора.

Понадобится обновить завершенную конфигурацию, введя locale-gen .

Теперь переключите язык операционной системы на русский для удобства дальнейшего управления: echo "LANG=ru_RU.UTF-8" > /etc/locale.conf .

Установите имя компьютера, что нужно при обращении к нему. Используйте команду echo "user-pc" > /etc/hostname , где user-pc — название устройства.

Осталось только подтвердить пользователя, добавив его в конфигурационный файл. Сначала запустите его vim /etc/hosts .

Впишите строку 127.0.0.1 user-pc.localdomain user-pc , выполните запись и закройте редактор.

Some processors require an early boot image to run the OS correctly. If you are not sure if you need it, just in case, install the image via mkinitcpio -p linux.

Set the password for root access through the passwd command.

It remains only to install the GRUB bootloader and configure the Internet. It is installed in the standard way - pacman -S grub.

After completion, grub-install / dev / sda is added to the disk and a separate configuration file grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg is created.

Setting up the Internet network is also carried out before rebooting the system. Pay attention to the commands below and execute them one at a time:

ls / sys / class / net / (definition of the active network interface).
cp / etc / netctl / examples / ethernet-dhcp / etc / netctl / ethernet-dhcp (copying the configuration file).
vim / etc / netctl / ethernet-dhcp (launching the configuration file through a text editor).

In the configuration file, change the value of Interface to the one you learned earlier through the command ls.

Activate the selected default profile: netctl enable ethernet-dhcp.

Exit exit, then unmount all file systems via umount -R / mnt and reboot Arch Linux by typing reboot.

This completes the procedure for the full configuration of the operating system. It remains only to wait for the reboot and you can get to work.

Step 9: Using Arch Linux

Typically, those users who already had experience working with other simpler assemblies on this kernel are interested in the Arch Linux distribution. However, this does not negate the fact that novice users also come to this platform. They need to be prepared for the fact that most of the actions and settings are carried out through a standard console. You can familiarize yourself with the implementation of the basic functions in our articles at the following links.

In addition, today you are faced with a number of popular teams that often have to be involved in "Terminal". We suggest that you carefully study each of them and try to remember the application, syntax, and correct input. This will also help detailed materials.

This concludes our article. We hope you easily mastered the entire installation procedure and during its implementation there were no difficulties. For additional information on working in this platform, refer to the official documentation developed by the creators of the system.

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