Not always, local electricity networks are able to fully provide electricity at home, especially when it comes to suburban cottages and mansions. Interruptions in the constant power supply or its complete absence forces us to look for alternative ways to obtain electricity. One of these is the use of an electric generator - a device capable of converting and storing electricityusing for this the most unusual resources (energy of the sun, wind, tides). Its principle of operation is quite simple, which makes it possible to make an electric generator with your own hands. Perhaps a home-made model will not be able to compete with the analog of the factory assembly, but this is a great way to save more than 10,000 rubles. If we consider a home-made electric generator as a temporary alternative source of power supply, then it is quite possible to do with home-made.
Make or buy?
The desire to have an electric generator in its use is clouded by one nuisance - this ishigh unit cost. Say what you like, but the most low-power models have a rather sky-high cost - from 15,000 rubles and more. It is this fact that leads to the idea of the creation of a generator with your own hands. However himself the process can be difficult, if:
- no skill in working with tools and circuits,
- no experience in creating such devices,
- the necessary parts and spare parts are not available.
If all this and a great desire are present, then you can try to assemble a generatorguided by the assembly instructions and the attached diagram.
It is no secret that the purchased generator will have a more expanded list of features and functions, while a homemade product can fail and fail at the most inopportune moments. Therefore, to buy or do it yourself is a purely individual issue, requiring a responsible approach.
How does an electric generator work?
The principle of operation of the electric generator is based on the physical phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. A conductor passing through an artificially created electromagnetic field creates a pulse that is converted to direct current.
The generator has an engine that is capable of generating electricity by burning a certain type of fuel in its compartments: gasoline, gas or diesel fuel. In turn, fuel entering the combustion chamber produces gas during the combustion process, which rotates the crankshaft. The latter transmits momentum to the driven shaft, which is already able to provide a certain amount of energy at the output.
The principle of operation of the device is quite simple, but exactly as long as there is no need to consider each individual process. You need to understand that the Faraday law on the principles of magnetic induction, which is used in an electric generator, will give the desired result only when certain conditions are created. The main one is the correct calculation and connection of the main structural units.
Regardless of the fuel consumed and power, electric generators have two fundamental mechanisms: a rotor and a stator. The rotor is necessary to create an electromagnetic field, therefore, it is based on magnets equidistant from the core. The stator is stationary, allows the rotor to be set in motion, and also regulates the electromagnetic field, due to the presence of metal blocks of steel.
Do-it-yourself option for manufacturing an electric generator is shown in the video
Asynchronous Generator: Features and Benefits
By the type of rotation of the rotor, generators are synchronous and asynchronous. The former have a complex structure, and are also more sensitive to voltage drops in the network, which affects their productivity. Asynchronous, on the contrary, have a simpler principle of operation, and also have excellent technical characteristics.
Magnetic coils are placed on the rotor of the synchronous generator, which complicates the process of movement of the rotor, while the rotor of the asynchronous generator is more like a conventional flywheel. Design features significantly affect the efficiency, and in the synchronous there are losses (up to 11%). In the asynchronous indicator, the energy loss indicator decreases to 5%, which makes it more popular not only in everyday life, but also in production.
There are also others advantages of asynchronous generators:
- A simpler housing protects the engine against moisture and spent fuel, reducing the need for frequent maintenance.
- The generator is resistant to voltage surges, and also has a rectifier at the output, which protects the connected electrical appliances from damage.
- The device is able to serve as a power source for devices having an ohmic load and high sensitivity to voltage surges: welding machines, computer and computer equipment, incandescent lamps.
- It has high efficiency, which is combined with a minimum clear factor (an indicator of the energy loss that is spent on heating the device itself).
- It has a service life of at least 15 years, since all used parts are quite reliable and can not be quickly worn during operation.
Variant of an electric generator with an induction motor Toyota
What are generators and where are they used?
An autonomous power station is equipment capable of generating electricity by burning fuel. They are both single and three phase. Moreover, the latter are distinguished by the ability to work with various loads.
They find application as a backup and, in some cases, permanent source of power supply and are intended for operation:
- In cottages and in cottages,
- Exhibition and trade pavilions,
- Construction sites
- Health camps,
- Small towns.
Types and their application features
Technological equipment of this class is classified by the following parameters:
- Scope of use,
- Type of fuel burned,
- The number of phases
We start our consideration with the scope. Depending on this factor, the generators are divided into domestic and professional, although a simple electric generator can be assembled with your own hands. The first are usually made in the form of a compact power unit and have a power of 0.7 to 25 kW. They are equipped with an internal combustion engine running on gasoline or diesel fuel and equipped with an air cooling system. Such devices are used as backup energy sources for household appliances and power tools, as well as a self-powered electric generator assembled by hand.
They are lightweight and low noise, so they are widely used in private households. The operation and maintenance of such units is not difficult and everyone can cope with it, as well as assemble an electric generator with their own hands.
We watch a video, a little about generators of their types and advantages:
Professional equipment is designed to operate as a permanent source of energy supply. Typically, such generators are used in medical institutions and office buildings, as well as in the construction industry during emergency and other works. Units of this class have considerable weight and are not distinguished by quiet operation, which greatly complicates their transportation and the choice of place for installation. But at the same time, they have a higher motor resource and reliability when operating in extreme conditions. The advantages of such electric generators include economical fuel consumption.
The power of industrial power plants can exceed 100 kW, which allows them to be used as backup power sources for electrical equipment of large enterprises. The disadvantage of these units is the difficult maintenance.
The next parameter used in the classification is the type of fuel:
The former have a small range of capacities, but at the same time they are characterized by mobility and ease of use, just like a self-made electric generator used for a house. They are used as backup sources, as they have a small motor resource and high cost of energy.
Diesel units have a wide range of capacities and can be used to power public institutions and even small towns. However, they do not differ in compact dimensions and quiet operation, therefore they should be installed on a fortified foundation in a separate room.
Gas power generators are mainly used in industrial facilities. They are distinguished by high environmental friendliness and low cost of generated energy.
Power plants differ in the number of phases in:
The former are suitable for devices with single-phase power in the corresponding networks. The second can serve as a source of energy for various devices and are installed in houses with a three-phase wiring network.
Device and principle of operation
A machine that can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy is called a power plant. Its principle of operation is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, well familiar to everyone from the course of school physics.
It says that an EMF is formed in a conductor moving in a magnetic field and crossing lines of force. Therefore, it can be considered as a source of electricity.
But since this method is not entirely convenient for practical use, it was somewhat changed in the generators using the rotational motion of the conductor. In theoretical terms, power plants are a system of electromagnets and conductors. But constructively, they consist of internal combustion engines and generators.
DIY assembled powerplant diagram
Many, trying to save money, try as much as possible to create home-made equipment, for example, a generator. The fact that this device is necessary in every house does not need to be explained to anyone, but the industrial model is expensive.
To get similar equipment in a cheaper version, you have to assemble it yourself. There are various schemes of self-assembled electric generators: from the simplest - windmills, to the more complex ones - based on internal combustion engines. Let's consider some of them.
Windmill - a simple option
You can assemble such an assembly from improvised materials. It can be used both in a camping trip and in a country house and belongs to fuel-free electric generators assembled by oneself. It will require:
- DC motor (it will be assigned the role of a generator),
- Carriage assembly and driven sprocket from an adult bike,
- Motorcycle roller chain
- Duralumin 2 mm thick.
All this does not require large expenditures, and perhaps it will generally be found free of charge in your garage. How to make an electric generator on your own you can see in the video below. The assembly also does not require special knowledge. A chain sprocket is installed on the motor shaft.
Watch the video, detailed assembly instructions:
In this case, a self-assembled electric current generator can be attached to the bicycle frame. The blades of a windmill are made slightly bent and up to 80 cm long. Even with a small wind, such a device can give 4 to 6 amperes and a voltage of 14 V. Even the engine from an old scanner can be taken as a generator for a windmill. This is the simplest electric generator that you can assemble yourself.
Power plant based on an old generator from a walk-behind tractor
Before looking for a homemade device circuit, decide which option will be the most affordable for you. Perhaps you can find a generator from an old walk-behind tractor and, on its basis, assemble a device that can provide power to electric bulbs located in several rooms.
As a generator for such an installation, an AIR series induction motor with a speed of up to 1600 rpm and a power of up to 15 kW is suitable. It is connected with the help of pulleys and a drive belt to a motor removed from a walk-behind tractor. The diameter of the pulleys must be such that the speed of the electric motor used as a generator is 15% higher than the rated value.
Watch a video in detail about these works:
The motor windings must be connected by a star, and a capacitor is connected in parallel to each pair of them. The result is a triangle. But to ensure the operation of the generator, it is necessary that all generators have the same capacity.
Moreover, this indicator depends on the power of the generator. To use three phases to power a single-phase device, a transformer is used.
More detailed do-it-yourself schemes of the electric generator, both of the simplest windmill and complex models, can be found on the network. If you have a desire and the opportunity to assemble an electric generator for summer cottage on your own, then it will help you to feel comfortable on a camping trip or in the country. To provide energy for more complex equipment, it is still better to purchase industrial models that are highly reliable and economical.
Electric generator: scope, principle of operation
Today we will talk about an asynchronous electric generator, since it has a number of advantages that distinguish it from the classical synchronous one. The most important of them is a low clear factor. The fact is that synchronous generators are characterized by a rather high clear factor, which is characterized by a large number of high harmonics in the output voltage. This, in turn, leads to unnecessary heating of the device and uneven rotation of the motor.
A self-made asynchronous electric generator is quite suitable for use in a summer house, but if we talk about the industrial use of such devices, they are used for energy production in wind farms, as welding units or as an independent means of supporting electricity in a house along with a stationary thermal power plant .
The principle of operation of the device is quite simple, if you do not consider each process inside it separately. The operation of the generator occurs due to the phenomenon of magnetic induction. The conductor passes through the electric field (created artificially) and creates a pulse, which is converted into direct current.
Inside the generator there is a motor that generates electricity according to the following scheme: fuel is burned in the engine’s combustion chambers, and gas is produced that sets the crankshaft in motion. That, in turn, transmits an impulse to the driven shaft, at the output giving a certain amount of energy.
DIY generator assembly process
Assembling an asynchronous generator, in principle, is not difficult, if you approach the process with all responsibility. First you need to collect all the structural elements that will be needed to assemble the device:
- Engine. This generator element can be manufactured independently, but the process is so lengthy and painstaking that it is easier to use a used motor from some old household appliance (a washing machine or a drainage pump is optimal).
- Stator. It is better to buy a fully assembled stator (already with a winding).
- Electric wires, in addition to which you will also need electrical tape.
- Transformer. An optional element that is necessary only when the energy at the output has a different power.
Before assembling, we calculate the power of the future generator. To do this, you just need to connect the engine to the network and determine the speed of its rotation with a tachometer. We add 10% to the obtained value (a compensatory value that will prevent overheating of the device).
Tip. Since the generator is directly connected with the production of electricity, it is necessary to ground it. The absence of this can lead not only to rapid wear of the device, but also to its transformation into a life-threatening device.
Having calculated the power, we select the suitable capacitors and connect them in a certain sequence according to one of the schemes that can be found in the public domain on the Internet.
When creating an electric generator at home, be prepared for the fact that he (in most cases) will not be able to compete with factory models in performance. Trying to translate the idea into reality is only in those cases when:
- there are relevant skills and knowledge in the field of electronics and mechanics,
- there have already been successful attempts to create such devices,
- on hand there is all the necessary equipment and instruments for accurate calculations,
- there is experience in reading electrical circuits, as well as the ability to carry out calculations in the design of electrical appliances.
Advantages and disadvantages of homemade generators, operation tips
Self-made generators, of course, have certain advantages, among which one can note the cost savings and the ability to create a device that fully meets the requirements.
But similar devices have their drawbacks:
- high probability of frequent breakdowns due to the lack of tight mounts between the structural elements of the device,
- possible inaccuracy in calculating the power of the device, which will lead to low productivity during operation of the device,
- To create an effective and reliable device, certain knowledge and skills are needed.
And finally, some useful tips regarding the competent operation of an asynchronous generator. Firstly, it is better to equip the generator with an on / off button (if possible). Secondly, periodically monitor the temperature of the device to prevent overheating. Thirdly, since the created device does not have automatic elements, during its operation it will be necessary to periodically use a tachometer, voltmeter and ammeter.
As you can see, in principle, creating a generator at home is not so difficult, especially if you have its basic structural elements. The question is the feasibility of such devices. From a financial point of view, this can only be beneficial in one case: if you have a used working engine on hand. In any case, it’s worth a try. Good luck