Hygiene is a science consisting of many sections, among which personal hygiene occupies a critical place. Personal hygiene -a set of mandatory rules of human behavior at work and at home. In the narrow sense, hygiene is keeping the body, clothes, and household items clean. Violations of the rules of personal hygiene and human health can permanently disable him and family members. This situation may occur if one member of the family became ill, but shared common dishes. As a result, the health of others is compromised, that is, personal hygiene and health are inextricably linked.
Personal hygiene includes several rules that everyone is obliged to observe: maintaining a clean body, the correct mode of work and rest, exercise, rational nutrition.
It covers the entire body and serves as a barrier to the penetration of various diseases. In addition to the protective function, the skin performs several others: respiratory, receptor, thermoregulatory ... It has a huge number of pores through which 5-7 liters of sweat and 200 g of fat are released weekly. In order for this most important organ to function properly, the skin must be cleaned. Daily body care should be a mandatory ritual.
- Every day you need to take a shower with water at a comfortable temperature. But for people with very dry skin, frequent washing is not recommended, so as not to impair the protective function of the skin. And the face, armpits and groin must be washed every day. For these purposes, you can use the appropriate care products - soap, gels. Each person must choose them individually. Skin hygiene involves the use of scrubs to exfoliate particles of dead epithelium.
- At least once a week, the procedure should be more thorough - in the bath, sauna or just in the bath.
- Every day you need to cleanse your face, then apply a moisturizer.
- Personal hygiene items - washcloth, towel - should be individual.
- Bed sheets need to be changed once a week.
Arms and legs
Hand hygiene plays an important role in maintaining health: harmful bacteria can enter your mouth from unwashed hands and cause an unwanted reaction. To care for your hands and feet, you should regularly use manicure and pedicure accessories - brushes, files, pumice stones. Carefully clean nails and file them gently. Feet should be washed daily with cool water to reduce perspiration. And hands need to be washed after coming home, before and after cooking, before and after going to the toilet, and simply because they can get dirty. In case there are no conditions for washing hands, you must have a wet towel with you.
To make your hair look well-groomed, you must try to follow simple rules.
- You need to wash your hair as necessary - if the hair type is normal, then once a week is enough.
- Choosing a hair product requires a thoughtful approach - undesirable substances can enter the body along with a shampoo or rinse.
- To give shine to the hair, it is very useful to rinse it after washing with nettle or chamomile infusion.
- It is not recommended to rub your hair with a towel - just blot it.
- Drying them with a hairdryer is also extremely undesirable - if time allows, then give them the opportunity to dry in the air.
The basic rules of personal hygiene necessarily include oral care.
- Teeth should be brushed twice a day - in the morning and in the evening after food and not less than 3 minutes. It is advisable to use a brush of medium softness.
- To clean the interdental space, you can use dental floss or a toothpick.
- To clean the gums, cheeks and tongue, there are many options for scrapers and shoulder blades, and to destroy all the microbes in the oral cavity, it is advisable to use a mouth rinse.
- But even regular cleaning will not guarantee that tooth decay or other problems will not occur. In order to start treatment at an early stage, it is necessary to undergo a dentist examination twice a year.
Skill of purity
Parents should familiarize the child with the first hygiene rules in infancy, and he must fulfill them throughout his life. With age, when the hormonal background of the boy begins to change, compliance with the simplest hygienic standards will help him avoid many troubles, including inflammatory diseases of the skin and genitals.
Personal hygiene includes a set of hygienic actions, such as a daily general shower, care for the genitals, perineum and armpits. By the way, it is better to remove hair in the groin and in the armpit - this will allow more care for the skin of delicate places.
The rules of feminine hygiene
The concepts of personal hygiene should be familiar to everyone since childhood. They are especially important for women. Knowing them and getting used to performing them from childhood, any girl will not worry in any situation.
Intimate care is individual for every woman and should include several mandatory rules.
- You need to wash yourself at least twice a day. Water must be running. The movements should be from front to back so that the discharge from the anus does not enter the vagina.
- You need to wash yourself only with your palm, without using a washcloth.
- The towel for intimate hygiene should be personal or paper.
- A sanitary napkin may also be suitable for this purpose if water cannot be used.
- Underwear should allow air to pass through unhindered. It is most comfortable to wear cotton.
- The girl’s intimate hygiene must be thought out: you can not use shower gel, soap or those products that are not individually suitable for this purpose. They can cause irritation or even illness. Therefore, the best way out is to go to the gynecologist and purchase hygiene products on his advice. In extreme cases, you can purchase a product with a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, containing lactic acid, so as not to disturb the microflora.
- During menstruation, you need to wash up to five times a day to wash off decaying blood.
Many inflammatory diseases of the male genital area can be avoided if you seriously take the usual water procedures. A man’s day should begin with and end with a shower.
The temperature of the water can be adjusted at will, you just need to remember that it is desirable to rinse the groin area with a cool jet - the genitals cannot be overheated.
A bidet is a necessary thing that can greatly facilitate daily hygiene. As a cleanser for intimate hygiene, it is best to choose special gels and foams that have a neutral pH. It is advisable not to use female products - they have an acidic environment, and men need alkaline. In this case, neutral products with plant extracts are suitable.
A man, like a woman, needs to carry out personal hygiene at least 2 times a day - in the morning and in the evening. During the day, smegma accumulates under the foreskin of the penis - a mixture of secretion, dead epithelial cells and moisture. It is a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic microbes. That is why a thorough genital toilet using warm water and a delicate detergent is so important.
Clothes and shoes
In the rules of personal hygiene and human health, clothing, that is, its cleanliness, plays a tangible role.
- Underwear, including tights, stockings and socks, must be changed daily, they must be freshly washed.
- Clothing and shoes should be personalized and appropriate for the season.
- Insoles from boots, boots and shoes should be cleaned immediately as they become dirty.
Before starting the procedure of hygienic cleaning of the penis, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water, wipe them with a clean or paper towel. A few recommendations:
- water should be moderately warm, and foam - plentiful, to remove all secretions from the penis,
- it is undesirable to use a regular shower gel or soap: fragrances that are part of such products can cause irritation of the sensitive area,
- pull the foreskin and rinse the head, especially rinse the corolla and bridle,
- Finally, rinse the groin and perineum with cool water.
Benefit for health
In accordance with other paragraphs of the rules, nutrition should be complete and rational, provide mental and physical activity of a person, contain a sufficient amount of calories, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. A proper diet is also necessary for a full-fledged rhythm of life: a person takes food 5-6 times a day and does not starve. Observing personal hygiene in the kitchen will guarantee that an intestinal upset does not occur. This means that health will not suffer.
Sports, and just physical exercises, physical labor, walks in the fresh air, various outdoor activities - the necessary and most reasonable pastime after a working day and on weekends. This will increase metabolism, vascular and heart tone, restore strength and harden the body.
The importance of personal hygiene is difficult to overestimate.
But a hygienic certificate should be familiar to a person from childhood and must be strictly followed by them, and then any diseases will be bypassed.
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The reproductive function of a man largely depends on the health of the testicles, because it is in them that sperm are formed. It is important to know that the temperature of the testicles should be 4 degrees below body temperature, and therefore, overheating of the scrotum should be avoided. For example, immersion of testicles in hot water for only a few minutes can exclude the ability to fertilize a woman for six months! After a warm shower, urologists recommend rinsing the scrotum with cool water.
If a man has sedentary work, periodically you need to get up and walk so as not to overheat the scrotum. Ideally, it is advisable to perform simple exercises to improve the circulation of the pelvic organs.
It is important to monitor the area of the perineum, thoroughly cleaning it after defecation with soft toilet paper in the direction from front to back or using a bidet.
In the summer, in order to avoid inflammatory processes in the perineum that arise due to increased sweating, a man needs to rinse the groin area with cool water and use a powder or baby talcum powder.
Hygiene before and after sex
Before sexual intercourse, as well as after it, it is imperative to take a shower, thoroughly washing the genitals and penis from accumulated smegma and urine residues. This will save partners from many genital diseases.
The range of gels for intimate hygiene of men is wide enough. Options: Intimo gel with chamomile from Nivea (approximately 160 rubles), organic gel with plant extracts from Melvita (approximately 735 rubles), Green Mama gel (approximately 186 rubles), Epigen gel (approximately 650 rubles).
A major role is played by choosing the right underwear. Specialists consider such wide cotton shorts, popularly referred to as "family". They do not compress the genitals and do not overheat the testicles. Linen needs to be changed daily.
What can lead to non-compliance with simple hygiene requirements? To the most unpleasant, namely, to serious health problems: from inflammatory diseases such as phimosis, prostatitis, cystitis, balanoposthitis, to syphilis, gonorrhea and even HIV infection.
In the United States, 80% of men are circumcised. Not so long ago, scientists have suggested that such a procedure can protect against HIV infection. The thing is that during circumcision, the foreskin is removed, where possibly cells are located that are especially susceptible to the immunodeficiency virus.
Author: Natalya Karpova
Expert: Galina Filippova, Ph.D., general practitioner
Unlike public hygiene, the purpose of which is to strengthen the health of the entire population or the health of a population, personal hygiene is aimed at preserving and strengthening individual human health.
Public hygiene will not achieve its goal and will not be able to maintain the health of a person who will neglect the basics of personal hygiene (observing the regime of work and rest, good sleep, a balanced diet, adequate exposure to fresh air, maintaining clean skin, oral cavity, clothing, and hardening and physical education, the absence of bad habits, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, etc.). A systematic inattentive attitude to the hygienic conditions of life worsens his health and reduces his working capacity.
At the same time, personal hygiene is inextricably linked with hygiene in general, including public hygiene. Thus, non-compliance with personal hygiene requirements in everyday life, especially by representatives of certain professions, has an adverse effect on the health of others (passive smoking, the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases and helminth infections, poisoning, etc.).
Hygienic body care should be done daily.
The importance of personal hygiene for a person
Personal hygiene is a set of established medical standards, under which a person keeps his body, hair, hands, clothes, shoes, bedding clean and maintains his working capacity and health for a long time. The simplest rules of personal hygiene can avoid many infectious diseases, and their failure can lead to helminthic infestations and the spread of epidemics. In addition to performing hygienic procedures, they include hardening, an active lifestyle, and staying in the fresh air.
Depending on gender and age category, personal hygiene requirements are different. In men, they are associated with the need for regular shaving of the face, and in women of childbearing age, with special care during menstruation or during pregnancy. The skin of a baby is different from the skin of a teenager or adult, therefore, the basics of personal hygiene in children and adults are different.
What relates to personal hygiene items
One of the basic hygiene requirements is that everyone should have individual personal hygiene products, which include:
- Soap - various resistant viruses and microorganisms may remain on its surface.
- Towel - A damp cloth helps spread fungus, mold and bacteria.
- Bast - Microbes and viruses remain in the fibers of the wet bast, which lead to the appearance of blackheads, acne and lichen.
- Razor - dead skin cells and bacteria remain on its blade.
- Set for manicure - when used together, it can become a carrier of the fungus or human papillomavirus.
- Toothbrush - can become a carrier of streptococci, norovirus infection and even HIV.
- Comb - can lead to dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, the spread of fungus.
Other personal care products include face and body skin care complexes stored in jars, a hair clipper, lip balm, lipstick, and makeup.
The main rule of personal hygiene is to maintain a clean body. The skin contains sebaceous and sweat glands. As a result of their activity, excreta remain, which serve as a good environment for bacteria and viruses. Wash off these secretions with a daily bath or shower using cleansers. Once every 7-10 days, you must go to the bathhouse or take a bath at home using soap and a hard washcloth. It is important to remember that clean skin kills bacteria and has protective properties.
You need to wash your face every morning after waking up and in the evening before going to bed, and also constantly monitor that your hands remain clean, as they can be carriers of various infections.
You should wash your hands with soap after each visit to the toilet, contact with a dirty surface, contact with animals, and also immediately upon arrival home from the street.
It is especially important to wash your hands before and after eating. In the absence of water, use wet sanitary napkins.
Perfect hair cleanliness
An important requirement of personal hygiene is to keep your hair clean. With regular care of the scalp, the work of the sebaceous glands is normalized, and blood circulation improves. They do not wash their heads on schedule, but as necessary. In this case, you should carefully approach the choice of shampoos and conditioners, take into account the hair structure and season.
You can not wash your hair with too hot water so as not to activate the sebaceous glands. To preserve the structure of the hair, it is useful to rinse it with a decoction of nettle, chamomile or burdock root and do not blow dry it to prevent it from drying out and damage. To improve the condition of the scalp, it is useful to massage and comb your hair before bedtime.
Personal hygiene and health are inseparable concepts, especially when it comes to teeth. Многие желудочно-кишечные заболевания возникают из-за плохого состояния ротовой полости.Proper dental care will not only keep them in good condition and minimize the risk of caries and bleeding gums, but also protect bacteria and microorganisms from entering the gastrointestinal tract. To do this, you must:
- morning and evening brush your teeth from food debris with an individual toothbrush,
- after eating, rinse the oral cavity with water, use a toothpick or special floss,
- Once every six months, go to the dentist's office for a physical examination,
- if you experience toothache and bleeding gums, consult a doctor immediately
- change your toothbrush every two months.
To strengthen the gums, it is necessary to eat foods rich in vitamins, to avoid fatty and acidic foods that destroy tooth enamel.
Clean underwear and bedding and shoes
Personal hygiene of a person is impossible without clean underwear and clean shoes. Traces of dirt, sweat and fat deposits remain on clothing, on which pathogens appear. Therefore, after taking a shower or bath, it is required to change the linen that is in direct contact with the skin (panties, tights, socks, shirts). When choosing clothes, preference should be given to products made from natural fabrics. In addition, you should dress for the season, conduct regular washing of linen and outerwear.
To maintain personal hygiene, bed linen should be changed every 7-10 days, and towels every 3-4 days.
Before going to bed, underwear should be changed to spacious clothes for sleeping. Pets should not be allowed into their beds, even if they are universal favorites.
Shoes not only protect the feet from damage, but also bring dirt from the street into the house, and is also an environment for spores of fungi and harmful microorganisms. Therefore, it must be cleaned not only outside, but also washed and dried inside, if necessary, change the insoles and never wear someone else's shoes.
Everyone, starting in childhood, needs to learn to observe simple hygienic rules. Parents should make sure that children learn how to wash their hands with soap, brush their teeth on their own and be sure to take a shower before bedtime. Personal hygiene of children should be monitored until they come of age, and then they will keep this habit forever.
Personal oral hygiene Edit
Oral hygiene is a means of preventing dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease, bad breath (halitosis) and other dental diseases. It includes both daily cleaning and professional cleaning by a dentist (oral sanitation).
Hygienic oral care should be done at least 2 times a day after eating (ideally, after each meal, at least rinse the oral cavity). It is necessary to use a toothbrush with soft bristles and toothpaste (tooth powder). Teeth should be brushed with vertical brush movements. It is necessary to change the brush as it wears, but at least every 3-4 months. Be sure to use dental floss to clean the sides of the teeth between them. Toothbrush must be individual. Other dental products are also used, such as mouth rinses, dental wipes, and toothpicks.
As a prophylaxis for deodorizing the oral cavity after eating, removing food debris and normalizing the pH, sugarless chewing gum can be used, for greater effect, dentists recommend the use of medical or functional chewing gums with xylitol and functional additives. After each meal, rinse your mouth.
Personal Skin Hygiene Edit
Human skin secretes sweat and sebum, contaminated with dust. Normally, harmless microorganisms and the natural microflora of humans live on human skin. When contaminated, the skin loses its protective properties and pathogens begin to multiply on it, and sweat and sebum decompose and begin to exude odors. A considerable number of microorganisms accumulate under the nails. Therefore, it is recommended to take a daily hygienic shower, regularly cut short nails. Through dirty hands, you can become infected with intestinal infections and helminth infections, in order to avoid this, you must always wash your hands with soap after returning home from the street, after visiting the toilet, before eating. It is necessary to wash your feet daily before going to bed, followed by thoroughly rubbing them with a towel.
Hair washing is carried out at least 1-2 times a week. Shampoo is used to wash hair and scalp. Comb, shaving accessories should be individual.
Hygiene measures also include the use of protective gloves, clothing, shoes, creams to protect the skin from burns, frostbite, injuries (scratches, abrasions, bruises, splinters, etc.), aggressive chemical, poisonous and infectious substances.