Today, poor eyesight is a serious problem for many people, since it is much more difficult to perform everyday tasks with impaired vision, not only physically, but also psychologically.
Due to illness, severe nervous breakdown, pathological features, injuries and much more, millions of people in the world lose their eyesight. Most of all, according to statistics, there is a significant visual impairment in people over 65 years of age.
Many believe that only a small part of the older generation has a decrease in vision with age. This is not true! It is scientifically proven that all changes that occur with the eyes and eyesight of a person with age do not so much affect vision impairment.
What are the signs of visual impairment?
Many elderly people experience a rapid decrease in vision due to various eye diseases, such as diabetes, myopia, glaucoma, farsightedness and many others.
If you notice a decrease in vision, you must now pay attention to simple exercises aimed at improving vision, such as palming, solarization, oculomotor exercises.
In case of visual impairment, it is also necessary to consult an experienced ophthalmologist. From my own experience I know that if vision has already deteriorated, it is necessary that the doctor prescribe the weakest glasses, which are only possible, so that your eyes do not overstrain. If possible, remove your glasses and exercise regularly to restore vision, and you will be fine.
How can I find out about visual impairment?
Each person should be examined at least once a year by an ophthalmologist who can determine the state of your vision using special tests.
- You can’t make out objects that you’ve seen well from close range — read a book, sew, write, or from a long distance — store names, bus number, cars.
- You are not able to clearly see the faces of acquaintances, relatives or friends.
- Many objects become dimmer and blurry.
And finally, if you notice a deterioration in vision, do not hesitate, you need to contact an ophthalmologist and do not forget to perform useful exercises to improve vision.
If you regularly have headaches, then this is an occasion to consult a specialist, regardless of whether the reason is visual impairment or something else. Headaches, as a rule, do not bode well, so you need to immediately determine their source.
Often they can cause eye strain after a long and intense reading or working at a computer. However, it is better not to try to diagnose diseases yourself, but to trust a professional.
Started to squint
If you started to squint while trying to make out any object - far or near, then this is also a bell. We squint due to the fact that at this moment a beam of light narrows onto the retina. Thus, the image is clearer. However, this is a clear consequence of the fact that without a squint you do not see as well as you would like.
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Varieties of the pathological process
If vision deteriorates, this picture may have several varieties, depending on causal factors.
Problems with normal accommodation - in this situation, a deterioration in clarity is observed when a person examines objects at a remote distance.
Difficulties with peripheral vision - in this situation, a person suffers from the fact that he loses the ability to clearly detect objects that are in the side of the eyes.
Impaired refraction implies a deterioration in the ability of the eyes to distinguish certain objects that are at a distance, as a result of which the eyes have difficulty adapting to lighting.
Adaptation disorders - the eyes cannot rationally and quickly enough get used to lighting, which tends to change quickly. This makes it difficult to distinguish between different colors.
Characteristic disturbances - they are accompanied by the appearance of spots and fogging on the part of the crystalline lens, and there may be double vision, the formation of departments that are sensitive to light.
In any case, a sharp deterioration in vision is a kind of signal for action and involves the timely determination of the causative factor.
- If you feel that your eyesight is deteriorating, do not pull - consult a doctor as soon as possible.
- Follow your doctor's recommendations.
- Find out as much as possible about your disease.
- If surgery is the best option, ask your doctor about the duration and recovery period.
- If your doctor recommends conservative treatments, find out about the side effects of your medications.
- Have your eyes checked regularly. It is recommended to check your eyesight every 2-3 years if you are under 50 years old. If you are older than 50, you need to check your vision every year.
- It is important to learn about your genetic predisposition. The sooner you can detect signs of decreased vision, the better.
- Eat a healthy diet. Include foods in your diet that contain nutrients that are essential for eye health. For example, foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins C and E. In addition, foods such as cabbage and spinach have a positive effect on eye health.
- Take care of your eyes. Always wear sunglasses with you. Umbrellas will also help protect your eyes from the harmful effects of the sun's ultraviolet rays.
- Take into account all your health problems. In some cases, decreased vision is associated with other medical problems.
- Find out if you have more serious diseases that affect your vision: neurological disorders, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune diseases (myasthenia gravis, and so on).
- Do not drive and do not operate any mechanical devices if you suspect you have vision problems.
Should I fear retinopathy
The likelihood of developing retinopathy depends on several factors:
Blood glucose control,
Blood pressure control
In addition, if a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant, the rate of development of eye complications may accelerate due to physiological stress from maintaining a growing fetus. Therefore, the attending physician may recommend that during pregnancy more often to be examined by an ophthalmologist for the timely detection and treatment of complications. It is important that this pattern does not apply to cases of gestational diabetes, which occurs only during pregnancy6.
What happens to vision?
The causes of visual impairment may be different, therefore, independent conclusions on this subject should not be done. The initial symptoms of loss of visual function include the inability to clearly distinguish the contours of distant objects. If the eyes do not see well, then the picture in the distance blurred, a “veil” forms in front of the eyes, it is not possible to read some inscriptions from afar (of course, all this is relevant for myopia).
In this case, loss of vision can occur even if the visual center itself and all its elements are in perfect order and do not have any violations in their work. Often this happens when certain serious pathologies develop in the internal organs and systems of the body, when partial loss of vision is only a symptom. The deterioration in the ability to see can be short-term, persistent, permanent.
- If a child or an adult suffers from both eyes, then in this case it is customary to talk about the presence of neurogenic disorders.
- If visual impairment is observed in one eye, then the problem is most likely local (vascular disease, eye tissue defect, etc.).
If vision falls rapidly and sharply, then this will indicate the presence of a serious pathology. Ophthalmologists distinguish between ophthalmic and general causes that can lead to such disorders. In this case, the drop in visual ability is not always due to organic disorders.
Temporary visual impairment can occur due to overstrain, excessive fatigue, sleep problems, after a long stay in front of a monitor or TV.
Benign intracranial hypertension
Benign intracranial hypertension usually develops in women who are prone to gain weight and who have problems with the menstrual cycle. The occurrence of the disease can provoke various pathologies of an endocrine nature, bearing a child, iron deficiency in the body.
This type of disease is characterized by the presence of pain in the occipital part of the head and a significant visual impairment, which occurs due to the formation of edema in the optic nerve, stagnation of blood and hemorrhages in the eye. Such a pathology can be easily treated with the help of modern medicine. At the same time, women need to monitor their weight, follow all the doctor's recommendations. In ill patients, vision is gradually restored after a complete cure.
The disease is an inflammation of arterial vessels localized in the structure of the brain and in the eye area in particular. Pathology in some cases can cause a person to develop blindness in one eye. Usually, as the disease progresses, vision begins to gradually deteriorate.
If the disease is found in an elderly person, then restore lost visual function will be very problematic. In this case, the patient will see with one eye completely normal (one-way blindness will not affect the second eye in any way). This type of visual disturbance can be eliminated in young men and women through special operations.
With temporal arteritis, other symptoms also appear that help to determine the pathology in time and begin to treat it, avoiding blindness:
- Pain in the artery located in the temple area.
- The tension of the temporal zone.
- Permanent headaches localized in the temples (can give to the eyes and frontal lobes).
- Changes in laboratory tests, with which you can determine in advance the onset of the inflammatory process
If the quality of vision deteriorated sharply, then a person becomes not only unable to lead his usual lifestyle, but often falls into a depressive state, which can turn into a panic. The thing is that each of us receives the lion's share (up to 90%) of environmental information through the eyes. Reading, watching interesting videos and TVs, surfing the Internet and even finding the right place on the street - all this requires well-seeing eyes.
Causes of vision impairment
What happens at a time when a person's vision is deteriorating? The very first symptom is the inability to clearly see surrounding objects, especially those located far away. Also, the images become blurry, a “veil” may hang in front of the eyes, blurred vision is felt. Problems begin with obtaining information in a visual way, the impossibility of reading, etc. The more vision deteriorates, the more difficult it becomes to navigate in space.
Symptoms of visual impairment
Attention! Sometimes visual impairment, especially sharp, may not be due to the development of any eye disease. Often the cause of this condition is some pathology of organs that are not related to the eyes.
Table. Types of visual impairment.
|Two sided||In this case, vision deteriorates in both eyes. Usually the reason lies in neurogenic processes. |
|One sided||Here, visual impairment is noted only in one of the eyes. Often associated with some local cause. These can be eye tissue defects, vascular pathologies, etc. |
Vision in one eye fell
Visual impairment during pregnancy
Pregnancy affects the systems and organs of the female body, including the organs of vision. Visual impairment during pregnancy is not the most serious problem. Often the phenomenon is a consequence of a disease that causes great harm to the fetus, therefore it is recommended to visit an oculist in the first trimester regularly.
A complex pregnancy is accompanied by a high load on the heart, which leads to a change in the blood supply to organs and a narrowing of the vessels of the retina. At high pressure, hemorrhage appears in the retina, which leads to delamination.
When symptoms appear, respond immediately. Reddened eyes are a superficial symptom of serious processes taking place inside the eye. Only ophthalmoscopy helps to detect them.
Hormonal changes affect vision. An increased level of hormones affects the protein shell of the eyes, which leads to visual impairment. After childbirth, the symptoms disappear, so you do not need to resort to the use of glasses or lenses.
If pregnancy is not accompanied by pathologies, problems with visual acuity bring temporary discomfort. We are talking about dryness, irritation and fatigue of the eyes. Excess hormones are to blame. With a sharp decrease in visual acuity or the appearance of bright sparks in front of the eyes, beware.
- Often the cause of visual impairment is the restructuring of hormones. In this case, treatment is not required. After childbirth, everything is normal. Many doctors recommend correcting vision during pregnancy planning, because health problems are harder to treat than preventive measures.
- If there was dystrophy before the conception of a child, take a course of laser coagulation. It is allowed to be carried out during the first 36 weeks. Do not delay with this, otherwise it is not recommended to conduct a natural birth. Physical exertion can lead to separation or rupture of the retina.
If you regularly watch TV, sit at the computer for a long time or read books in the evening, pause periodically. During the break, do exercises or massage your eyes.
How to strengthen eyesight?
Step 1. Carrots are rich in vitamin A, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the eyes. Therefore, it is important to eat as many carrots in different forms as possible. It is also important to consume foods rich in iron and zinc.
Eat more carrots
Step 2 Surprisingly, action games will help strengthen your eyes. This was reported in 2007 by the results of a study conducted by scientists. Eyes seem to train when they follow the active actions taking place on the screen. So you need to change your favorite genre of games to "action".
Play action games
Step 3 It is required to include several outdoor walks in the daily routine, and during the holidays it is imperative to get out into the countryside.
Walk in the fresh air
Step 4 It is recommended to take supplements containing lutein, zeaxanthin, blueberries. They have beneficial effects on the eyes.
Step 5 You need to visit an ophthalmologist regularly to check the condition of the eyes. This will help prevent the development of any diseases and take timely measures to improve vision if necessary.
Visit an ophthalmologist regularly
Step 6 It is important to limit the time spent at the computer or at the TV. Eye strain should be strictly dosed. If this is not possible, then you need to interrupt periodically and do exercises for the eyes.
Limit time spent on a computer or TV
Step 7 Sports and exercise will help strengthen your eyes. It is recommended that you add at least 1-2 workouts per week to your schedule.
Step 8 If necessary, laser vision correction is done.
Laser vision correction
Pathology of this type is observed in people after the age of 40-50. With the development of the disease, a lesion occurs on the retina, which has a huge number of nerve receptors that are very sensitive to the received and processed light.
There is no consensus on the triggering factor yet. But many well-known doctors note that pathology is formed exclusively if a significant lack of important elements and vitamins is observed in the human body. Therefore, the prevention of vitamin deficiency is the main prevention of this disease.
Macular degeneration can be cured with the help of modern laser equipment, which is available in ophthalmological clinics. Also, in a number of countries the method of photodynamic treatment is used, various injectable drugs, drops and tablets are used.
What to do?
Anisometropia is usually treated in two ways. The first is wearing telescopic glasses or corrective lenses. But I would like to emphasize that in no case should you choose glasses or lenses yourself without the advice of a doctor. This, on the contrary, can only worsen the situation. In addition, this can lead to microtrauma of the cornea, and, as a result, to infection in the eye, inflammatory processes and edema.
Врачи-офтальмологи подтверждают, что при таком заболевании, как анизометропия, бывает трудно подобрать коррекцию.
Второй метод – хирургический. They resort to it only in the extreme case when all other methods do not work. Most often this happens at the stage of a chronic disease. The operation is done using a laser.
And only as prescribed by the attending physician. Such an operation has some limitations and contraindications. So, for example, after surgery, you can not greatly strain the eyes, you need to try to exclude concussions and any injuries, because all this can again provoke the disease.
I note that in children, amblyopia can be corrected quite well. But first you need to get rid of the cause of vision loss in the eye, and then get it to work again. Often, for this, doctors advise using occlusion - that is, try to exclude the second, healthy, well-seeing eye from the visual process.
Select treatment is strictly individual. It all depends on the person’s age, type of pathology and stage of development of the disease.
- The vagueness of the image, which is not amenable to spectacle correction,
- Change in refraction towards myopia. Some patients start reading without glasses,
- Sensation of glare, flashes, especially at night. Sensitivity to light, but without pain,
- The appearance of halos around light sources, double vision,
- Deterioration of color vision.
- In the treatment of cataracts, all manipulations are carried out through a micro incision (about 3 mm) of a special tunnel shape, which does not require suturing, since it is self-sealing after the operation,
- Before removing the lens using ultrasound, it turns into an emulsion and is easily removed from the eye (phacoemulsification). The lens itself has a certain rigidity, and if it is removed in whole or in part, as was done before, there is a possibility of damage to the internal structures of the eye,
- In the surgical treatment of cataracts, a flexible lens is implanted in the eye, which independently unfolds after administration. It is she who will now perform the functions of the lens. The lens will last a lifetime, no need to replace it. It itself is made from materials biocompatible with the tissues of the eye and must undergo an experiment on biological aging.
Implantation IOL AKRISOF ReSTOR
Modern intraocular lenses - multifocal
There are two types of intraocular lenses (IOLs): inflexible (rigid) and flexible (folding). The use of inflexible IOL allows the use of cataract treatment - phacoemulsification, but the incision size reaches 5-7 mm. Moreover, a longer period of time is required for wound healing. The use of flexible IOLs reduces the incision size to 3-4 mm, which contributes to rapid healing and is less traumatic.
Characteristics of modern IOLs used in an ophthalmological center for the treatment of cataracts:
- perfectly smooth surface does not damage the fabric,
- biologically inert material does not cause inflammation,
- the ability to adhere to the posterior capsule minimizes the risk of secondary cataracts,
- the special design of the form facilitates the work of the surgeon, ensures the correct position of the lens in the patient’s eye and eliminates spherical aberrations,
- small thickness allows the IOL to be implanted through an incision from 2.5 to 3.0 mm,
- a large selection of different types allows the use of these lenses in adults and children, as well as in case of eye injuries,
- provides maximum protection of the retina against UV rays and blue.
Make a present to your eyes - choose the best for them.