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- In Dietetics and Breastfeeding
- Posted on 12/25/2018
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Expert: Specialist in breastfeeding of the National Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology Meni V.I. Kulakova, perinatal psychologist Olga Koreneva talks about how to manage breastfeeding after childbirth.
Experts are convinced that the topic of breastfeeding is inextricably linked with the process of recovery after childbirth. 6-8 weeks is given by nature to a woman so that the body is fully restored. And exactly the same amount the baby needs to adapt in the outside world. During the work of the PRO9 Congress in Moscow, Olga Koreneva answered the most exciting questions of expectant mothers about breastfeeding and gave them practical advice on breastfeeding.
First breastfeeding: how is the first breastfeeding in the delivery room?
The best start for successful breastfeeding is early skin-to-skin contact with the baby and contact with the baby. Not always at the first application the baby begins to suckle, and mother should not worry about this. After all, this is not so important as the first contact and acquaintance with mom, a sense of her smell. If the mother does not manage to get the first colostrum, the midwife will help to do this.
First breastfeeding after childbirth
The first day after childbirth is very important, and during this period it is advisable to apply the baby to itself as often as possible and maintain contact with it, feed it on demand. All this will help the child calm down and overcome postpartum stress. After birth, the baby sleeps a lot, eats and cries. But crying is not always caused by hunger - most often the child reacts with crying to stress experienced in childbirth. In order to reassure the baby, just pick it up and offer a chest.
In the first day, the child can spit amniotic fluid. In such an uncomfortable situation, he may refuse to breast. Do not worry, the situation is usually resolved within a day.
What should be breast milk?
Colostrum is not milk yet
Colostrum is not as much as milk - sometimes only drops of colostrum stand out. Often it seems to mother that such a quantity may not be enough for the child. However, it is not. On the first day, the baby’s stomach is very small - the size of a cherry (5-7 ml). But colostrum covers all the needs of the child in the early days, because in its composition there is very little water and many calories.
Colostrum can be considered the "first vaccination" of the baby, because it is not so much a food as a factor in immune defense. Therefore, it is very important to often apply the baby to the breast in the first days after birth: it will be regularly saturated with high-calorie drops and gradually prepare for the transition to breast milk. In addition, colostrum has a laxative effect, as a result of which, in the baby’s intestines, meconium (original stool) changes to normal stool when breast milk is fed. Colostrum also helps to remove bilirubin, which is the prevention of jaundice.
How to express breast after childbirth and when to express colostrum?
There are circumstances when in the first days of life a baby cannot attach to his chest - with an emergency cesarean section of a mother, with prematurity, etc. In such cases, it is necessary to begin breast stimulation - decantation. This is advisable to do during the first 6 hours after birth to maintain lactation at the proper level. Even being in the intensive care unit after cesarean section, the mother can, without collecting colostrum, make decanting movements, stimulating the breast. Thus, the brain receives signals that the baby needs milk, and supports the lactation process. You can strain colostrum into a clean spoon and, if necessary, feed him a child.
Expressions should be carried out every three hours 7-8 times a day, including at night. For the first three days, while it is colostrum, 15 minutes of pumping are enough for two mammary glands. In the first three days after giving birth it is very important not to make an interval between feedings for more than three hours: even if the baby is sleeping, it is necessary to wake him gently (swaddle, change the diaper), offering him a chest.
How to apply a newborn for feeding?
Poses for feeding newborns
- Cradle position: convenient if you need to release one arm during feeding,
- The "out of hand" position: convenient for a mother with large breasts, if a woman has undergone a cesarean section and for a baby with a small weight,
- Lying position: it is especially convenient for feeding at night or if the mother just wants to relax.
How to give breasts to a newborn: the technique of breastfeeding
When feeding the baby is always at breast level, tightly pressed to it. The head and back of the child are on the same line. It is important not to limit the time of application to the breast at the first stage of feeding, while the number of applications can reach 15-20 times a day.
If the baby is not properly applied while breastfeeding, the nipple will be injured and cause the woman painful and unpleasant sensations. Pain is a signal that something is going wrong.
It is incorrect to apply when the baby’s lower lip is retracted and does not cover the areola of the chest or the baby’s mouth is not wide enough to capture the entire areola.
What is on-demand feeding? How to understand what a child wants to eat?
- If the baby wakes up himself - this is already an occasion to be applied to the chest.
- Movement, stuffing the cam into the mouth - this is the “requirement”.
- If you touch the child’s cheek or mouth, the “search reflex” will work for him: he will turn his head and look for his chest. When the lips touch the nipple, the baby opens his mouth wide and tries to stick to his chest.
- If the mother missed the moment of the “search”, the child begins to cry. In this case, it does not need to be applied to the chest immediately - it is better to raise it in your arms, shake and calm, and then offer the chest.
- Let the baby completely drink milk from the first breast: with the help of the “front” milk he will quench thirst, with the help of the “back” milk he will starve. If the baby is still not full, offer him a second breast.
What is the norm in the first days after the birth of the baby?
- In the early days, the baby overcomes stress, as a result of which it can lose weight. This is a normal process that pediatricians carefully monitor.
- Also, the long process of sucking and “freezing” on the chest for the first time is normal: the baby’s stomach is gradually preparing to absorb a larger amount of breast milk.
- A small amount of urine in a child is also the norm.
When will milk appear after childbirth? The first sensations of a woman with the arrival of mature breast milk
- Milk begins to come 2-5 days after birth. Breasts become swollen and warm. To prevent the mammary glands from becoming rude and lactostasis (stagnation of milk), apply the baby to the breast as often as possible.
- There is a feeling of heaviness, discomfort in the chest.
- Cold lotions and compresses or special thermal pads will help remove unpleasant sensations and swelling.
- It is more convenient to perform decantation not by hand, but by a breast pump.
- It is necessary to concentrate to a feeling of pleasant relief, and not to the last drop.
- On the first day after the arrival of milk, hot drink should be avoided, preferring water at room temperature,
- Drinking is necessary only to quench your thirst - neither more nor less: excess and lack of fluid negatively affect lactation.
When should a woman seek help from a specialist?
- If a woman is unable to attach the baby to her breast on her own, with the help of an obstetrician or a nurse.
- If the baby is bad, sluggish and little breastfeeding: in this case, the woman can be offered ways to feed. With a feeling of discomfort in the nipple during feeding.
- When the baby is in the intensive care unit, you should invite a specialist to help organize the feeding.
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How does lactation develop?
The formation of lactation takes place in several stages. At the initial stage, a colostrum - a thick yellowish liquid is formed in the mammary gland, characterized by high energy and nutritional value and having pronounced immune activity. Colostrum begins to be produced even during pregnancy, and after childbirth it provides the baby with the necessary biologically active substances and energy for the first 3-5 days.
It should be said that the newborn’s body experiences enormous loads associated with adaptation in a new environment for it, therefore colostrum for the crumbs just born is a very valuable product, which does not prematurely load the digestive system with a large amount of nutrition, and immature liver and kidneys are a necessity transform and remove foreign substances from the body. Given that everything you need is contained in just a few drops of liquid, which also digests itself due to the active enzymes contained in it, the baby significantly saves forces in the feeding process, allowing his body to spend energy more efficiently.
On the 4th – 5th day, transitional milk begins to be produced in the woman’s mammary gland, the composition of which gradually changes, resulting in its “ripening”: the protein concentration gradually decreases, while the content of milk fat and sugar, on the contrary, increases. The amount of minerals and vitamins gradually comes into line with that in mature milk. The stage of "transition" is characterized by a significant increase in the volume of milk produced, which is subjectively felt by a woman as a rush. At the same time, the mammary glands increase in size, their coarsening occurs due to the filling of small milk ducts with milk.
By the 2-3rd week after birth, milk becomes ripe - its composition is more stable than that of the transitional one, and the volume of production is more regulated by the individual needs of the crumbs.
Breastfeeding should be started immediately after childbirth. The duration and quality of subsequent breastfeeding is largely determined by the successful development of the necessary skills in the very first days after birth and fixing them in practice.
Breastfeeding regimen in the first days after birth
The first application of the baby to the chest should ideally take place within the first 30 minutes after giving birth and should last at least 20 minutes.
The importance of early attachment to the breast is enormous: in the body of a woman, it actively starts the process of lactation, helps to reduce uterine muscles and stops postpartum bleeding. The newborn along with colostrum receives a powerful energy supplement, a portion of protective immune factors and substances that stimulate the growth of beneficial microflora in the intestine.
The impossibility of early attachment to the chest is usually due to deviations in the state of health of the mother or newborn, for example, deep prematurity of the baby or depression of its central nervous system, Rhesus conflict. Most contraindications for breastfeeding are temporary and should not be taken by mom as a sentence.
From the first days of an infant's life, it is necessary to focus on the free feeding regimen. In this case, the child is applied to the chest as often as he wants. The frequency of feeding a newborn can reach 10-12 times a day, while at night the need for feeding can be higher than during the day. It is very important not to additionally feed the baby with milk formula, not to give him water, and not to use objects that mimic the breast (nipples, dummies) in caring for the baby, since, satisfying the baby's sucking reflex, they violate the breast stimulation rhythm necessary for lactation to become . Subsequently, when the baby grows up, he will develop his own diet - from 6 to 8 times a day.
The time spent at the chest is individual for each child. However, it is desirable that the duration of one feeding should not exceed 20-30 minutes, since ineffective prolonged sucking often provokes the appearance of cracks and irritation of the nipples. If the baby sucks sluggishly and sleeps near the chest, you can try to stir it up by stroking the cheek or heel. Weakened children who find it difficult to "cope" with the breasts are recommended to apply more often. Before milk arrives, it is advisable to apply the baby to both breasts every feeding. This will serve as a good stimulation of lactation. After the milk has appeared, you can continue this practice for some time, which will alleviate the symptoms of the “tide”, gradually introducing the rule of “one breast per feeding”.
Mastering the technique of applying to the chest is very important. The right technique provides the best emptying of the mammary gland, which means it effectively stimulates lactation. Optimal grip of the nipple and areola during sucking is the prevention of cracks and ensures tight contact between the lips, the baby’s tongue and the skin of the chest, so the baby does not swallow air during feeding and suffers less from colic.
The correct position of the child at the chest allows him not to turn his head and this is achieved in various poses, convenient for the mother, both lying and sitting. The baby should be located on the principle of "stomach to stomach", "eye to eye." With the right grip, the baby takes the nipple into the mouth along with the periglossal circle (areola), the lower lip of the baby is turned outward, and the chin, cheeks and nose are snug against the chest. The child draws in the nipple and areola, and then, pressing the tongue on them, squeezes the milk and swallows it.
Breast and Nipple Care
Breast and nipple care involves, first of all, wearing special underwear (preferably from natural soft, breathable fabric) that supports the mammary glands well, thus preventing sagging breast tissue, and removes the additional load from the thoracic spine, which inevitably arises due to displacements of the center of gravity as a result of a significant increase in the breast during lactation. Changing a bra is recommended every day.
It is convenient to use special pads or milk collectors to prevent the fabric of the bra from getting wet involuntarily from the breast. It is necessary to change the gaskets at least every 3 hours, and the milk collectors are processed according to the instructions of the manufacturer.
While maintaining the cleanliness of the linen and changing the pads regularly, there is no need to wash your breasts before each feeding. An ordinary hygienic shower, which is carried out once a day, is enough.
Breastfeeding in the hospital
It is always necessary to take into account the specifics of the medical institution in which the young mother and her child are. In a situation with a separate stay, it is impossible to apply the principle of free breastfeeding in a maternity hospital, and in addition, there is a high probability of feeding a baby with a mixture in between “dates”. The postpartum departments of maternity hospitals practicing co-residence have an indisputable advantage, which allows a woman to quickly and efficiently establish natural breastfeeding in the early days, as well as acquire the necessary skills for caring for the baby. While in the hospital, it is advisable to find a common language with the medical staff and ask not to feed the baby with a mixture, which is especially true in a situation of separate stay. If, for medical reasons, the child is prescribed doping with water, it is necessary to do this with a spoon to prevent the child from getting used to the bottle. In case of forced separation from the baby for more than 24 hours, it is necessary to start decanting, as described above.
In the maternity hospital you can always get the answer to your questions and help in solving possible problems with the establishment of breastfeeding in the early days. To do this, contact your doctor, a neonatologist who is observing the child, and if they are absent from the workplace (for example, in the evening), contact the post-natal department medical personnel. In many modern maternity hospitals, in addition, specialists and consultants on breastfeeding are currently working.
The menu of a nursing mother in the first days after childbirth
What foods should make up the diet of a nursing mother in the first days after birth?
- Dairy products - 600-800 g per day. Preference should be given to natural fresh kefir, fermented baked milk, yoghurts without additives and cottage cheese. It is advisable to use whole cow's milk in an amount of 200 ml per day for making cereals.
- Meat products, of which low-fat varieties of beef and pork, rabbit, turkey, chicken, 200–250 g are more suitable for the menu of a nursing mother.
- Cereals (all types), pasta from durum wheat - 60 g (dry cereals).
- Bread - 200 g.
- Animal and vegetable oils (butter - 25 g, vegetable - 15 g).
- Овощи – 400 г и фрукты – 300 г, за исключением высокоаллергенных.
- Из кондитерских изделий в умеренном количестве допустимо употребление сухого печенья, крекеров, мармелада.
- Для восполнения жидкости помимо обычной питьевой воды можно пить некрепкий чай: черный, зеленый и травяной, компоты из свежих ягод и сухофруктов (за исключением изюма), морсы, столовую минеральную негазированную воду.
Нужно ли кормящей маме много пить?
The total amount of fluid drunk before milk arrives (during the first 3-5 days after birth) should be no more than 800 ml per day, otherwise it will be difficult to cope with the symptoms of the tide. When milk has appeared, in parallel with the establishment of adequate emptying of the breast, it is necessary to gradually increase the amount of fluid consumed to 2–2.5 liters per day.
When decantation is needed
Ideally, only as much milk as the baby needs is formed. There is no need for decantation. However, when difficulties arise, decantation helps to solve a wide range of problems. It is necessary if:
- the child is temporarily separated from his mother for health reasons or for other reasons. In this case, pumping mimics feeding, stimulates lactation and retains it until the moment you meet the child,
- when mom is separated
- and the child in the hospital, if the baby missed or “overslept” the next feeding, it is necessary to stimulate the breast by expressing for 10-15 minutes,
- with excessive milk production, when the breast is full and becomes dense and painful, decantation helps alleviate the condition of the woman and helps to prevent mastitis. In this case, the breast is decanted until a feeling of relief appears, and the mammary gland itself becomes soft.
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Improperly organized breastfeeding can lead to health problems in the nursing mother herself and to a decrease, and in the worst case, the cessation of lactation. Let's see what errors are most common.
There are situations when suddenly a baby refuses a breast. Of course, this causes great concern for mom. Why is this happening and how can I fix the situation? .
Speaking about the establishment of lactation, we often talk about the "technical" side of the question - how much should be applied to the baby's chest and how important night feeding is. However, recent studies have proven that the main fa.
The first time a newborn declares his desire to suckle a breast almost immediately after giving birth. Thanks to this first application to the breast in the mother's body, the hormone oxytocin begins to act actively, which is "responsible" for the contractile activity of the uterus, which means for the safe separation and birth of the placenta and for the absence of postpartum hemorrhage. That is why in most maternity hospitals in the world, a newborn is not taken away from their mother and they try to ensure full, long-term breast sucking in the first half hour after childbirth until the very moment of the birth of the afterbirth. After this, the doctor will examine and postpartum treatment of the mother - and feeding can continue. After some time, having received precious drops of colostrum from his mother’s breast, the baby falls asleep serenely.
Where to feed?
Usually, doctors recommend mom bed rest in the first few days after birth. This is necessary for the safe "return" of the abdominal organs to their places - those that previously occupied the uterus. Therefore, it is better to not disturb the horizontal position of the body without unnecessary need. This point needs to be taken into account in advance - and to consider how to provide adequate care for the mother in the first postpartum week (ready-made and tasty food, improvised help for changing diapers and treating the umbilical wound, organization of life).
And what provides an effective reduction of the uterus and its return to the prenatal state? The same hormone oxytocin. And its effect directly depends on the frequency and duration of the baby's sucking. Many mothers after childbirth feel weak (and sometimes quite noticeable) stretching in the lower abdomen during feeding - the contractile effect of the secreted hormone just manifests itself. Thus, for the full recovery of the uterus after childbirth, it is important to organize unlimited access to the breast of the newborn. How is this best organized? Ideally, the place of the crumbs is on the bed with the mother. It is in this case that mom will not have to get up again. That is how she will manage to fix the first signs of anxiety in the baby and give him a chest before he cries. This is how mom will feed in the most comfortable position of the body - lying down. And it is precisely such a continuous physical contact that a newborn needs. Why? Everything is very simple: the baby also needs to recover after childbirth! Today it is no secret how much stress for the baby is the process of birth. To fully compensate for this stress, he needs to find a safe, native and comfortable place in this world. Where is it, if not next to my mother, not at her breast? Closer to the heart, the pulsation of which set the rhythm of his life in the previous 9 months, closer to the familiar warmth and smell.
How to feed?
The first time after birth, the baby is mostly sleeping. And sucks a breast. And again, falling asleep sweetly, sucking. He expresses his requests for attachment to his chest in the following ways: he begins to grunt in a dream and toss and turn, opens his mouth and sticks out his tongue, smackes his lips, makes attempts to stick to objects touching his face. If a mother responds to his request in a timely manner and gives the baby a breast, then he will have no reason to cry. How wonderful it is - a calm and joyful baby, isn't it? Before the arrival of breast milk, the newborn receives the most valuable fluid from the breast - colostrum. In terms of volume, there are very few of them: just as much as the newborn really needs. But in terms of composition, it is an irreplaceable “product”. Colostrum lays the foundation for the development of the baby’s immune system, programs the successful formation of the intestinal microflora of the baby, helps to establish the functioning of all the vital systems of the newborn. No other food and liquid is needed during this period.
A few days after the birth (and sometimes even after 1-2 days) the composition of the milk will change - the mother will feel the arrival of the so-called transitional milk. This may be accompanied by fever, breast filling, the appearance of pain in the mammary gland, spontaneous release of milk ("leakage") from the breast. The most important thing at this moment is to feed the baby as often and as long as possible. The basic rule: in one feeding we offer one breast. If you experience pain from an excess of milk in the chest, you can limit the amount of fluid you drink on the day - no more than 3 glasses. After a day - regardless of the situation - you need to start drinking as much as you want, as much as the body requires. Finally, the composition of milk (the so-called mature milk) will form by the end of the third week after childbirth.
One of the most important components of a successful start of breastfeeding - along with frequent applications in response to any discomfort on the part of the baby and ensuring continuous contact of the mother with the newborn - is the so-called proper application to the breast. It provides the full stimulation of the breast to produce enough milk and is the main prevention of stagnation of milk in the chest. What does it look like? The baby’s mouth is wide open, the lips are turned outward, the chin and cheeks are snug against the chest, the tip of the nose rests on the chest. And most importantly - the whole areola (brown circle near the nipple) is in the mouth of the crumbs! For mothers with large breasts, I’ll add a clarification: the areola capture radius should be at least 2-3 cm from the base of the nipple. Do not hesitate to seek help from the medical staff of the hospital: let them show you how to properly attach the baby to the chest. Roommates - if they already have a successful experience in raising an older child - will also be happy to help you. The baby learns to properly capture the chest for 1-2 weeks. During this period, you will need perseverance and patience in teaching crumbs. But you can’t stand the pain of sucking for a minute! Carefully remove the chest from the mouth, sticking your finger between the gums of the baby and unclenching them, and try to put it on the chest again. The use of breast substitutes - bottles, soothers and nipples is completely contraindicated. Their use confuses the baby’s manner of grabbing the chest and can lead to breast abandonment.
The end of the first week after birth is marked by the appearance of a conscious smile of the baby during wakefulness. Baby with her mother’s help came out of the state of birth stress. His smile may appear when looking at his mother, as an answer to her words or her smile. And no matter how difficult the birth for a woman is, at that moment she forgets everything. Joy overwhelms her heart. The first stage is completed. Now, with renewed vigor, to meet new difficulties and discoveries.
And if not together?
It happens that a mother and a baby for some reason cannot constantly be together after childbirth. In this case, it is necessary to take certain steps to ensure the future full breastfeeding. The main thing that is important to remember is never too late to establish normal breastfeeding! Even if you have not “received” milk, even if you have “lost” it for various reasons, try to contact breast-feeding consultants for qualified help as soon as possible. In our practice, there were mothers who transferred their babies from completely artificial feeding to completely breastfeeding at the age of one week, and at two, three month old, and after six months.
So, what should you do if you are separated from the baby after giving birth? If, for example, he was hospitalized, or if your postpartum period goes with complications and you have no way to regularly feed the baby, then, starting from the second day, you need to organize regular pumping. It doesn't matter that almost nothing stands out from the chest. Our task at this stage is to simulate the baby’s attachment to the breast to form a “request” for milk by stimulating the mother’s hormonal system (the amount of milk depends on the amount of prolactin hormone). The regularity of pumping until the moment of substantial milk arrival is as follows: approximately every 2 hours (with a break between 24 and 6 in the morning) we express both breasts for 5-10 minutes. After the active arrival of milk (if it is), the pumping schedule can be slightly changed: we express both breasts every 3 hours for 10-15 minutes. It is important to continue actions according to this scheme until the moment of reunion with the baby - i.e. until you have the opportunity to put it on your chest as often as you need it. Do not be discouraged if the amount of milk does not significantly increase due to decantation: as soon as continuous contact with the baby and frequent sucking is ensured, your breast will be able to produce this irreplaceable product in sufficient quantities. You only need to keep in mind that without you, the baby is used to getting food from the bottle - and pre-tune in to the patient and competent retraining of the baby and its gradual transfer to full breastfeeding. Qualified assistance in this matter can also be provided to you by breastfeeding consultants.
It is very joyful that in recent years an increasing number of maternity hospitals have been organizing a joint stay of mother and baby after childbirth. However, many women in labor are still deprived of this opportunity - and until the moment they are discharged from the maternity hospital, they will bring the baby on schedule. All the rest of the time, the newborn is separate from his mother, regularly receives supplementary food with a mixture and is doped with water. When he is brought to mother for feeding, he usually sleeps deeply or sucks sluggishly, and sometimes even cries completely when trying to give him breasts. Under such conditions, it is impossible to maintain normal lactation. What to do? Try to use the time allotted for feeding as efficiently as possible (usually they give it 30 minutes). The tasks are simple:
- Stimulation of milk production: we offer both breasts to suck at once. We shift the baby from one breast to another if it sucks uneasily.
- To start teaching the baby to take breasts correctly: ask the medical staff or a more experienced mother to check the correctness of the application and your actions. To take the breast from the baby's mouth in case of pain and patiently continue his attempts.
- If you can’t feed the baby at all, try to arrange skin-to-skin contact with him: this measure also effectively stimulates the mother’s hormonal system for milk production. Swaddle your treasure - don't be afraid, nobody will scold you for it! Put the crumbs between your mammary glands (skin to skin), cover it with a blanket on top and just lie with it this time. Tell him how you love him, how you think about him and look forward to the moment when you no longer need to part with him for a minute. Stroke it on the back, feel the heels and tender palms. Be sure, the baby will appreciate your maternal tenderness!
If the sucking was not effective (the baby was sleeping, or crying, or could not take the breast correctly) - it is necessary to express each breast after feeding for 10-15 minutes, not paying attention to how much milk is allocated from it: it is important the fact of decantation, not the amount of milk.
Thus, you need to act until discharge from the hospital.
Along with many shortcomings, the method of separating the mother and the child after childbirth is fraught with two complications: a lack of milk and an abrupt arrival of milk, which provokes the development of breast engorgement. In the first case - if you do not feel a significant increase in the amount of milk on the 3-4th day - it is necessary to add 2 additional expressions to the feedings according to the regimen: at 8 o’clock in the morning and at 22 o’clock. It is necessary to strain both breasts at a time, each for 10-15 minutes.
In case of a sharp rush of milk, proceed as follows:
- For a day (and no more!) We limit the amount of fluid consumed in two glasses. We drink in small sips during the day.
- At 9 a.m. and 9 p.m., we express both breasts for 10-15 minutes.
- After a day - if it has not become easier - once a day we express both breasts completely. The rest of the time - if there is a painful bursting of the chest, we slightly stiffen up to a feeling of relief.
- To relieve pain in the mammary gland, you can apply a towel soaked in cold water for 15 minutes.
Separately, I want to note that in this situation the use of medicines that lower lactation, as well as alcohol-containing compresses, are categorically contraindicated.
After discharge from the hospital, it is also important to tune in to retraining the baby: weaning from bottle feeding, learning how to properly apply, setting up individual biorhythms of your baby - because in the hospital he was forcibly accustomed to the regime imposed by the instruction. If at the time of returning home a mixture is present in the diet of a newborn, try to get advice from a specialist in breastfeeding for a gradual transition to natural feeding.
After the completion of the forced separation from the newborn, separate efforts will require the restoration of psychological contact with him. This is necessary to overcome postpartum depression, which often occurs in mothers as a result of separation with the baby, and to establish breastfeeding, and to compensate for childbirth stress in the baby - because in the absence of the mother, she is not so fast nearby. The best option is to arrange bed rest for the next few days. Mom lies with the baby, hugs him, often puts it on her chest, makes contact "skin to skin". If circumstances do not allow you to act like this, then in any case it is important to establish round-the-clock contact between mother and baby: we hold it in our hands, often feed, wear and swing (you can use a sling or sling for this). It’s as if we “immerse” him in the womb again with all the sensations usual for that life: mother’s smells, rhythm of breathing and heartbeat, her voice, serene sucking and wiggling. The signal of successful completion of the process of establishing contact with mom will be the same joyful smile during wakefulness addressed to her. Fortunately, with the right actions of the mother, all the unpleasant consequences of separation after childbirth are smoothed out quite quickly.
What about next?
So the first week after birth passed unnoticed. A foundation has been laid for the further development of the relationship of the crumbs with mom and with the outside world. The sacred and oldest process of breastfeeding began. For proper continued breastfeeding, I want to recall the basic rules for successful breastfeeding, formulated by the World Health Organization:
- Try to put the baby to the chest in the first half hour after childbirth.
- Organize a joint stay with the baby after childbirth.
- Feed your baby as often and for as long as he needs it (including at night).
- Teach the baby to correctly apply to the chest: the areola capture radius (brown paranasal circle) should be at least 2-3 cm.
- Do not give the newborn any breast imitation items. If necessary, supplements can be given from a spoon / pipette / cup.
- Before the baby is 6 months old, do not give him any other liquid and food other than breast milk.
- Приложите все усилия для сохранения длительного грудного вскармливания
О становлении лактации
Этот процесс проходит в несколько стадий. Сначала в молочных железах формируется молозиво, которое представляет собой густую желтоватую жидкость. Она отличается высокой питательной ценностью, обладает выраженной иммунной активностью. Colostrum begins to be produced during pregnancy, and after giving birth, the baby provides it with biologically active substances during the first 3-5 days of life. During this period, the body of the newborn experiences enormous loads, because it adapts to the new environment. Colostrum is a valuable product that allows not to burden the digestive system with a large amount of nutrition, and the kidneys and liver with the need to process and remove substances unnecessary to it from the body. Thus, the baby can save energy in the process of nutrition and effectively spend energy.
Already on the 4th-5th day in the breast milk begins to be produced, which is called transitional. Its composition changes gradually: the protein concentration decreases, and the content of sugar and milk fat increases, the amount of mineral substances normalizes. The transition stage is characterized by an increase in milk production. A woman feels it like a rush. The breast increases in size, coarsens due to the filling of the milk ducts.
In the third week of the baby’s life, his mother’s milk is already mature. Its composition is more stable. The volume of production is regulated by the individual needs of the crumbs. So it should be normal.
Features of feeding in the first days after birth
The quality of breastfeeding is largely determined by the development of skills to properly attach the baby to the chest in the first days of his life. Ideally, the baby should be applied to the mother’s chest for half an hour after he is born. This is very important, because it is the sucking of a tiny breast that triggers the lactation process and helps the uterus muscles contract. At the chest of the child should be about 20 minutes. Together with colostrum, the baby at this moment receives a strong energy boost, the first portion of the immune defense and substances that stimulate the growth of microflora in the intestine.