A dictionary entry consists of a heading word, its grammatical characteristics, recommendations for punctuation and illustrative area. If necessary, the article is supplemented with the “Do Not Mix!” Zone, an additional commentary zone, and a reference zone.
Heading word indicated in the dictionary in capital letters and in bold. The emphasis in the heading word is given only if it is necessary to distinguish (A N HOW).
To transmit within the framework of one dictionary article the maximum possible number of similar word usage, the heading word can be provided with special notation:
Round brackets indicate an optional (optional) element.
TALK (TE) ON GRACE
no no and no no no yes
A comma enclosed in parentheses between the parts of the heading word indicates the possibility of different options for punctuation, commented further in the dictionary article.
Slash shares the variative elements.
TO YOUR / YOUR INFORMATION
DELIVER / SAVE / SAVE GOD / GOD / LORD
for your information,
for your information
God save, God forbid, God save, God save, God save, God save, God save, God forbid, God save
If the list of variable elements is open, then the most frequency options are given, after which the ellipsis.
GOD Merciful / RIGHT ...
The sign / ... / a closed list is indicated, in which the options are omitted (in this case, the first option is given in alphabetical order before the sign, and the last one after the sign).
WHERE IT IS IMPORTANT / ... / WHAT
no matter where, no matter why, no matter how, no matter when, no matter who, no matter where, no matter where, no matter why, no matter how much, no matter what
In one heading word can be used immediately several characters.
(NOT) LATER / LATER THAN
later than, later than, no later than, no later than
Parenthesized pronoun after the headline indicates that the punctuation difficulty is not the heading word itself, but the turnover it introduces.
TO RAPTURE (whom, whose)
to my admiration
to our admiration
to the admiration of others,
to the indescribable admiration of Petit
To the right of the heading unit is a litter indicating its grammar class or at use as part of a syntax construct:
ON RARE, adverb
AT LEAST, particle
BY THE WAY, introductory combination
ON INFORMATION (whom, what, whose), as part of the introductory combination
IF YESindecomposable combination
In two cases, information is also provided on syntax position heading word: 1) if the heading word belongs to the named grammar class only when used in this position, 2) if only in this position the heading word is associated with difficulties in punctuation.
FURTHER, introductory word (at the beginning of a sentence or part of a complex sentence)
ONLY, particle (at the end of the sentence)
A MORE, union (in the exclamation sentence)
WITH RESPECT (at the end of the letter)
Units with the same spelling, but belonging to different grammar classes, as a rule, are considered in one dictionary entry. This approach allows you to clearly demonstrate punctuation differences.
Punctuation Guidelines heading units are based on the norms of Russian spelling and reflect established editorial and publishing practices. However, given the dynamic and varied nature of the punctuation norms of the Russian language, the authors seek to warn the reader: 1) about unsustainable punctuation, 2) about the contradictions between the recommendations of linguists and written practice, 3) about the absence of recommendations (gaps) in existing reference books. Relevant information is usually provided in additional comment area.
Punctuation guidelines include some sort of “hint” to help the reader distinguish between punctuation marks if the heading includes more than one punctuation. “Tips” can be synonymous interpretations, brief definitions, information about the most typical syntactic position and syntactic function, etc.
OSTENSIBLY), union and particle
1. The Union. Same as "as if." Syntactic constructions joined by the union “as if (would)” are highlighted (or separated) by commas.
2. Particle. In value “As if, like,” is closely related to the predicate. Does not require punctuation.
The “as if (would)” particle also does not require punctuation when used in an interrogative or exclamatory sentence to state the opposite, to express the certainty of the opposite.
In some cases, recommendations for punctuation design contain references to applications or are exhausted by them.
IN CONNECTION WITH (than)preposition
Turnovers appended by the pretext “in connection with” may be isolated. For factors that affect punctuation, see App. one.
LITTLE OF, introductory combination
Same as "besides that." For details on punctuation in introductory words and combinations, see App. 2.
Illustrative Zone includes quotes from works of Russian fiction of the 19th – 21st centuries and / or expositional sayings. In some cases, citations from journalistic texts are cited. Quotations and sayings are in italics, and the headings in them are in bold. For citations from fiction, the author (the initial of the name and surname) and the name of the cited work are indicated.
Undoubtedly, there can be (and exist) different interpretations between different editions of quoted works due to the dynamics and variability of punctuation norms and writing practice. This circumstance should not confuse the reader, since quotations are given not so much as to reinforce the recommendations of the guide with the authority of the classics, but to show the word in its natural semantic and syntactic environment. In other words, the quotes are not exculpatory, but are illustrative in nature.
Additional Comment Area (indicated by the @ sign) may contain information: 1) on the frequency of punctuation options, 2) on the inconsistency of prescriptions of directories with the established practice of writing, 3) on the impossibility of an unambiguous choice of punctuation options without taking into account the context and copyright. Additional spelling information is sometimes provided.
@ In practice, turnovers with the words “against expectation” are more often isolated, because in terms of meaning they come closer to introductory combinations.
@ In the reference book of D. E. Rosenthal “Punctuation” it is indicated that the words “in general terms” can be isolated as introductory values. "Broadly speaking": Here are the elements in outline, is a project. However, examples from fiction suggest that the words “in general terms” and in this sense are usually not distinguished by punctuation marks.
@ It is often difficult to determine if the word "really" is introductory. In controversial cases, the author of the text decides on the punctuation.
@ It is necessary to distinguish between the union “besides” (meaning “in addition, besides”) and the combination of the preposition with the pronoun “besides”. The union is written together, the combination with the pronoun - separately: It was a trifle while the way of life that you had to lead in Warsaw. I. Goncharov, The vicissitudes of fate.
Zone "Do not mix!" warns the reader that: 1) there is a word in another part of the speech (or a combination of words in other parts of the speech), which is a grammatical homonym of the head unit, 2) (in the case of introductory words) the use of a word or combination as an introduction should be distinguished from use as a member (s) of the proposal.
PLEASE TELL ME, interjection
! Do not mix with a combination of a verb and a particle.
Tell me pleasewhy are four bulls dragging your heavy cart jokingly, and six empty cattle are hardly moving my empty cattle with the help of these Ossetians? M. Lermontov, Hero of our time.
EASY TO SPEAK / SAY, introductory combination
! Do not mix using as members of a sentence.
It would be incomparably easier to say her: if so, if you have by all means taken an oath of silence, we will sit again in the fiacre, I will take you home and say goodbye! D. Grigorovich, Not nice for a favor - good for a mil.
Reference area represented by litters see also or Wed and helps to compare similar or, on the contrary, words and combinations that are different in their punctuation design.
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The left side of the dictionary. The dictionary entry for any dictionary begins with headword (in another way: the heading word, lemma, black word - from bold type, which usually marks the head word).
The collection of headwords forms vocabulary, or the left side of the dictionary. The choice of a dictionary (which words will be included in this dictionary and which will not) depends on the purpose of the dictionary (highly specialized, universal, etc.).
The vocabulary may consist of language units:
- phonemes (sounds) - have recently been widely developed in connection with the development of automatic speech recognition,
- morphemes (prefixes, roots, suffixes ..) - for morpheme dictionaries, grammar dictionaries, word-building dictionaries,
- tokens (words in the “main form”) - by this criterion, most dictionaries are constructed: explanatory, spelling, etc.,
- word forms (words in a certain number, case ..) - for grammar dictionaries, rhyme dictionaries, etc.,
- phrases (not one word, but several related words in one way or another) - for example, for phraseological dictionaries, idiom dictionaries, cliché dictionaries, etc.
Sometimes a vocabulary consists of lexemes and phrases (for example, for encyclopedic dictionaries).
The right side of the dictionary - the one that explains the heading unit. The structure of the dictionary entry is determined by the objectives of the dictionary. Zones on the right are designed for each dictionary. It can be: a list of synonyms of a given word (for a dictionary of synonyms), a translation of a word (for dictionaries of foreign words), a disclosure of a concept that is described by a given word, with the possible application of graphs, charts, figures (for encyclopedic dictionaries), etc. For example , the right part of the explanatory dictionary, as a rule, includes zones:
- illustrations (quotes, sayings),
- type of value (direct, figurative),
- word-building nest,
- the so-called "zombie" part (phraseological units),
- and etc.
Often inside a dictionary entry may be area (zone) litter (or simply litters) Litters can be stylistic, grammatical and others. Most often, litters are located immediately after the heading word, but can also be in other places (for example: out of date. - obsolete value, rare - the value is rarely used, scientific - scientific value, etc.)
The collection of all dictionary entries forms dictionary body. In addition to the corpus, usually there is a preface in any dictionary, the section “How to use the dictionary”, a list of conditional abbreviations, etc. In addition, dictionaries can contain pointers (on Wikipedia, redirection pages, “ambiguity” and “Categorization” pages partially play the role of pointers )
Dictionary article “Commodity” in the “Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language” edited by D. N. Ushakov.
PRODUCT, a (y), m. 1. (many in many different species, varieties). The product of labor, which has value and is distributed in society through the sale and purchase (econom.), Is generally all that is subject to trade. We must finally understand that in the last analysis, goods are produced not for production, but for consumption (Stalin). My ship, anchored in the bay, is full of rare goods (Zhukovsky). Red t. (see red). In shops a lot of goods. Hodky t. Stale t. Colonial t.2. (only units). Crafted finished leather (boots.). Opoykovy t.3. (only units). Ore mix ready for smelting (forge). ◊Live goods. See live in 6 digits. Product face show - show something from the best, most profitable side. The auditor is coming from St. Petersburg ... It was audible that everyone was cowardly, busy, they wanted to show the goods (Dostoevsky).